【阅读】2018年考研《英语二》阅读真题及答案
发布于 3个月前 作者 一只绿色的🍋 630 次浏览 来自 考研

Part A:

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET I. (40 points)

Text 1

It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?

As Koziatek knows, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype…that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.

On one hand, that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution. Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was. The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle. We want more for our kids, and rightfully so.

But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all -and the subtle devaluing of anything less-misses an important point: That’s not the only thing the American economy needs. Yes, a bachelor’s degree opens more doors. But even now, 54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs, such as construction and high-skill manufacturing. But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.

In other words, at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head, frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing, one obvious solution is staring us in the face. There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them. Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all, it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.

21. A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of______.

A. mechanical memorization

B. academic training

C. practical ability

D. pioneering spirit

22. There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who______.

A. are financially disadvantaged

B. are not academically successful

C. have a stereotyped mind

D. have no career motivation

23. We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates______.

A. are entitled to more educational privileges

B. are reluctant to work in manufacturing

C. used to have more job opportunities

D. used to have big financial concerns

24. The headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all_____.

A. helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs

B. may narrow the gap in working-class jobs

C. is expected to yield a better-trained workforce

D. indicates the overvaluing of higher education

25. The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as_____.

A. supportive

B. disappointed

C. tolerant

D. cautious

答案及解析:

21. 选C. practical ability

答案在第二段第二句,学校教授的不是书本和死记硬背的内容,而是practical,实际的。因此选C

22. 选B. are not academically successful

答案在第四段第二句话和第三句话,a mark of inferiority,自卑的标志和kids who can’t make it academically, 那些在学术上失败的孩子。

23. 选C. used to have more job opportunities

答案在第五段第三句话,“美国经济过去提供的工作安全感现在消失了。”

24. 选D. indicates the overvaluing of higher education

第六段第一句话,“…没有抓住重点:这并不仅仅是美国经济唯一需要的东西。”

25. 选A. supportive

从文章第二段开头一句,“…是先锋人物”,为称赞句。

Text 2

While fossil fuels-coal, oil, gas-still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it’s cleaner than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar. The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world:They now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.

Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummeting prices of renewables, especially wind and solar. The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.

In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source. In Scotland, for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March, for the first time, wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US, reported the US Energy Information Administration.

President Trump has underlined fossil fuels – especially coal – as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source. But that message did not play well with many in Iowa, where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation—and where tech giants such as Facebook, Microsoft, and Google are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.

The question “what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?” has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now, this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.

While there’s a long way to go, the train lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change , what Washington does, or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.

26. The word “plummeting” (Line 3, Para. 2) is closest in meaning to ________.

A. stabilizing

B. changing

C. falling

D. rising

27. According to Paragraph 3, the use of renewable energy in America ________.

A. is progressing notably

B. is as extensive as in Europe

C. faces many challenges

D. has proved to be impractical

28. It can be learned that in Iowa, ________.

A. wind is a widely used energy source

B. wind energy has replaced fossil fuels

C. tech giants are investing in clean energy

D. there is a shortage of clean energy supply

29. Which of the following is true about clean energy according to paragraphs 5&6?

A. Its application has boosted battery storage.

B. It is commonly used in car manufacturing.

C. Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.

D. Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.

30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy ________.

A. will bring the US closer to other countries.

B. will accelerate global environmental change.

C. is not really encouraged by the US government.

D. is not competitive enough with regard to its cost.

答案及解析:

26. 选C. falling

定位到文章的第二段,根据最后一句知道价格是在下降,所以对应的是falling。

27. 选A. is progressing notably

定位到第二段的倒数一二两句,虽然世界其他地方处于领先位置,特别是中国和欧洲,美国见证了一个显著的转变。三月,风能和太阳能首次占比超过了美国所产能源的10%。可知美国是取得了显著的进步。

28. 选A. wind is a widely used energy source

定位到第四段最后一句, 根据 where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation可知,风能在Iowa应用广泛。

29. 选C. Its continuous supply is becoming a reality

第五段中But后面提到电池储存容量的增加使得能量流动变得更加可能,第六段的最后一句可知,虽然电动汽车现在在路上很少见,但是这种大量的投资在接下来的几年中可以很快改变这种情况。

30. 选C. is not really encouraged by the US government

根据题干renewable energy可以定位到出题点在最后一句话,且句中Washington可完美替换选项C中US government,所以选择C。

Text 3

The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing-Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for $13.5bn, but two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service, which doesn’t have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users’ friendships and social lives.

Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identities, but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through. Even without knowing what was in the messages, the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be. What political journalist, what party whip, would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May’s enemies are currently plotting? It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.

Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power. But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power. But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them. The users of their services are not their customers. That would be the people who buy advertising from them—and Facebook and Google, the two virtual giants, dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.

The product they’re selling is data, and we, the users, convert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew that produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield. Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes. It doesn’t feel like a human or democratic relationship, even if both sides benefit.

31. According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its _______.

A. digital products

B. user information

C. physical assets

D. quality service

32. Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may _______.

A. worsen political disputes

B. mess up customer records

C. pose a risk to Facebook users

D. mislead the European commission

33. According to the author, competition law _______.

A. should serve the new market powers

B. may worsen the economic imbalance

C. should not provide just one legal solution

D. cannot keep pace with the changing market

34. The White House claims that its power of enforcement ________.

A. they are not defined as customers

B. they are not financially reliable

C. the services are generally digital

D. the services are paid for by advertisers

35. The ants analogy is used to illustrate _______.

A. a win-win business model between digital giants

B. a typical competition pattern among digital giants

C. the benefits provided for digital giants’ customers

D. the relationship between digital giants and their users

答案及解析:

31. 选B. user information

定位到第一段的最后一句,可知WhatsApp是提供的的用户的信息。

32. 选C. pose a risk to Facebook users

定位到Even without knowing that was in the messages, the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be. 33.

33. 选D. cannot keep pace with the changing market

定位到第三段的第三句可知:比起变化的节奏,竞争法的进步则非常地缓慢。

34. 选D. the services are paid for by advertisers

定位到文章的第三段五到八句,可知主要是因为广告商在对服务付款。

35. 选D. the relationship between digital giants and their users

由just as可知,是为了证明例子前的论点,可以定位到最后一段的第一句。

Text 4

To combat the trap of putting a premium on being busy, Cal Newport, author of Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World, recommends building a habit of “deep work” - the ability to focus without distraction.

There are a number of approaches to mastering the art of deep work - be it lengthy retreats dedicated to a specific task; developing a daily ritual; or taking a “journalistic” approach to seizing moments of deep work when you can throughout the day. Whichever approach, the key is to determine your length of focus time and stick to it.

Newport also recommends “deep scheduling” to combat constant interruptions and get more done in less time. “At any given point, I should have deep work scheduled for roughly the next month. Once on the calendar, I protect this time like I would a doctor’s appointment or important meeting,” he writes.

Another approach to getting more done in less time is to rethink how you prioritise your day-in particular how we craft our to-do lists. Tim Harford, author of Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives, points to a study in the early 1980s that divided undergraduates into two groups: some were advised to set out monthly goals and study activities; others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail, day by day.

While the researchers assumed that the well-structured daily plans would be most effective when it came to the execution of tasks, they were wrong: the detailed daily plans demotivated students. Harford argues that inevitable distractions often render the daily to-do list ineffective, while leaving room for improvisation in such a list can reap the best results.

In order to make the most of our focus and energy, we also need to embrace downtime, or as Newport suggests, “be lazy.”

“Idleness is not just a vacation, an indulgence or a vice; it is as indispensable to the brain as vitamin D is to the body…[idleness] is, paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done,” he argues.

Srini Pillay, an assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, believes this counterintuitive link between downtime and productivity may be due to the way our brains operate. When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task, they tend to be more efficient.

“What people don’t realise is that in order to complete these tasks they need to use both the focus and unfocus circuits in their brain,” says Pillay.

36. The key to mastering the art of deep work is to______

A. seize every minute to work

B. list your immediate tasks

C. make specific daily plans

D. keep to your focus time

37. The study in the early 1980s cited by Harford shows that

A. students are hardly motivated by monthly goals

B. detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected

C. distractions may actually increase efficiency

D. daily schedules arc indispensable to studying

38. According to Newport, idleness is __________-

A. a desirable mental state for busy people

B. a major contributor to physical health

C. an effective way to save time and energy

D. an essential factor in accomplishing any work

39. Pillay believes that our brain’s shift between being focused and unfocused ______

A. can bring about greater efficiency

B. can result in psychological well-being

C. is driven by task urgency

D. is aimed at better balance in work

40. This text is mainly about_____

A. approaches to getting more done in less time

B. Ways to relieve the tension of busy life

C. The key to eliminating distractions

D. The cause of the lack of focus time

答案及解析:

36. 选D. keep to your focus time

根据题干定位到第二段的最后一句,可知选择D。

37. 选B. detailed plans may not be as fruitful as expected

根据题干定位到第四段的最后一句冒号后面,others were told to plan activities and goals in much more detail, day by day,可知选择B。

38. 选D. an essential factor in accomplishing any work

根据题干可以定位到七段的[idleness] is ,paradoxically, necessary to getting any work done, 可知是选择D

39. 选A. can bring about greater efficiency

根据题干可以定位到第八段When our brains switch between being focused and unfocused on a task, they tend to be more efficient.可知选A.

40. 选A. approaches to getting more done in less time

根据全文理解,文章围绕approach进行写作,讨论在更少的时间做更多的事情的方式,所以选择A。

Part B:

Directions:

Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

A. Just say it

B. Be present

C. Pay a unique compliment

D. Name, places, things

E. Find the “me too”s

F. Skip the small talk

G. Ask for an opinion

Five ways to make conversation with anyone

Conversations are links, which means when you have a conversation with a new person a link gets formed and every conversation you have after that moment will strengthen the link.

You meet new people every day: the grocery worker, the cab driver, new people at work or the security guard at the door. Simply starting a conversation with them will form a link.

Here are five simple ways that you can make the first move and start a conversation with strangers.

41.____________

Suppose you are in a room with someone you don’t know and something within you says “I want to talk with this person”—this is something that mostly happens with all of us. You wanted to say something—the first word—but it just won’t come out. It feels like it is stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice: just get it out.

Just think: that is the worst that could happen? They won’t talk with you? Well, they are not talking with you now!

I truly believe that once you get that first word out everything else will just flow. So keep it simple: “Hi”,“Hey”or“Hello”—do the best you can to gather all of the enthusiasm and energy you can, put on a big smile and say“Hi”.

42.____________

It’s a problem all of us face; you have limited time with the person that you want to talk with and you want to make this talk memorable.

Honestly, if we got stuck in the rut of “hi”, ”hello”, “how are you?” and ”what’s going on?” you will fail to give the initial jolt to the conversation that can make it so memorable.

So don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask.

43.____________

When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation from that point. When you start conversation from there and then move outwards, you’ll find all of a sudden that the conversation becomes a lot easier.

44.____________

Imagine you are pouring your heart out to someone and they are just busy on their phone, and if you ask for their attention you get the response “I can multitask”.

So when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly. Make eye contact, you can feel the conversation.

45.____________

You all came into a conversation where you first met the person, but after some time you may have met again and have forgotten their name. Isn’t that awkward!

So remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to, the place they want to go, the things they like, the thing the hate—whatever you talk about.

When you remember such thing you can automatically become investor in their wellbeing. So they feel a responsibility to you to keep that relationship going.

That’s it. Five amazing ways that you can make conversation with almost anyone. Every person is a really good book to read, or to have a conversation with!

41. A. Just say it

根据本段中的 It feels like its stuck somewhere, I know the feeling and here is my advice just it out. 可知本段的标题是just say it.

42. F. Skip the small talk

根据本段中的so don’t be afraid to ask more personal questions. Trust me, you’ll be surprised to see how much people are willing to share if you just ask. 可知选skip small talks.

43. E. Find the “me too”s

根据本段中的第一句When you meet a person for the first time, make an effort to find the things which you and that person have in common so that you can build the conversation that’s can make it so memorable.

44. B. Be present

根据本段中的so when someone tries to communicate with you, just be in that communication wholeheartedly. 可知选be present.

45. D. Name, places, things

根据本段中so remember the little details of the people you met or you talked with; perhaps the places they have been to the place they want to go, the things they like, the things they hate— whatever you talk about. 可知选D.


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