【语法】初中英语语法:形容词与副词的比较级
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形容词与副词的比较级

⑴ 规则变化

变化规则 example

1.一般在词尾直接加-er或-est Tall-taller-tallest, long-longer-longest

2.以不发音的字母e 结尾的单词在词尾直接加-r 或- st Nice-nicer-nicest, large-larger-largest

3.以辅音字母+ 结尾的词,把 y变为i ,再加er 或 est Heavy-heavier-heaviest

Happy-happier-happiest

4.重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这个辅音字母,再加er 或 est Big-bigger-biggest

Fat-fatter-fattest

5.部分双音节词和多音节词分别在原级前加more 构成比较级和most 构成最高级 Slowly-more slowly-most slowly

Beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful

⑵ 不规则变化

原级 比较级 最高级

Good/well better best

Bad/ill/badly worse Worst

Many/much more most

little less least

far Farther/further Farther/further

old Older/elder Oldest/eldest

其用法与形容词相似,只是副词最高级前可省略定冠词。

如:Of all the boys he sings (the) most beautifully.

We must work harder.

as + 形容词或副词原级 + as

1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。

He cannot run so/as fast as you.

2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。

as +形容词+ a +单数名词

as + many/much +名词

This is as good an example as the other is.

I can carry as much paper as you can…

3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。

This room is twice as big as that one.

Your room is the same size as mine.

  1. 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ than + of

This bridge is three times as long as that one.

This bridge is three times the length of that one.

Your room is twice as large as mine.

Your room is twice the size of mine.

比较级形容词或副词 + than

You are taller than I.

They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine.

注意:

1)要避免重复使用比较级。

(错) He is more cleverer than his brother.

(对) He is more clever than his brother.

(对) He is clever than his brother.

2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。

(错) China is larger that any country in Asia.

(对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.

3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。

The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing.

It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。

比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia?

Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia?

She is taller than her two sisters.

She is the taller of the two sisters. 可修饰比较级的词

1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等

2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。

典型例题:

1) ---- Are you feeling ____?

---- Yes,I’m fine now.

A. any well B. any better C. quite good

D. quite better

答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.

2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected.

A. more  B. much more   C. much

D. more much

答案:C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此C为正确答案。

3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school.

A. the happiest time  B. a more happier time

C. much happiest time  D. a much happier time

答案:D。

many,old 和 far

  1. 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词

many more +可数名词复数

  1. old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。

My elder brother is an engineer.

Mary is the eldest of the three sisters.

  1. far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。

在美语中,father 表示距离,further表示进一步。

I have nothing further to say.

the + 最高级 + 比较范围

  1. The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world.

形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。

形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。

It is a most important problem.

=It is a very important problem.

注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。

(错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.

(对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

  1. 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost

This hat is nearly / almost the biggest.

注意:

a. very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。

This is the very best.

This is much the best.

b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。

Africa is the second largest continent.

  1. 句型转换:

Mike is the most intelligent in his class.

Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

  1. "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构表示最高级含义。

Nothing is so easy as this.

=Nothing is easier than this.

=This is the easiest thing.

和more有关的词组

  1. the more… the more… 越……就越……

The harder you work,the greater progress you’ll make.

  1. more B than A 与其说A不如说B

less A than B

He is more lazy than slow at his work.

= He is less slow than lazy at his work.

  1. no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多

The officials could see no more than the Emperor.

no less… than… 与……一样……

He is no less diligent than you.

  1. more than 不只是,非常

She is more than kind to us all.

典型例题

1)The weather in China is different from____.

A. in America  B. one in America  C. America

D. that in America

答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C不能选。A没有名词,后句成分不全,排除。B和D中,B中的one常用来代替可数名词,而that可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选D。

2)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before.

A. as twice many  B. as many twice  C. twice as many D. twice many as

答案C. 此句意为"这个厂1988能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。 表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为C。

This ruler is three times as long as that one.

重点提示:

常见比较级五句型

1> Who / Which + be +比较级 , A or B ?

Who is taller, Tom or John?

Which is more expensive, a bicycle or a computer?

2> ~ + be + the 比较级 + of the two. (两个之中比较…的那一个,~包含在两个之中)

Tom is the taller of the two. = Tom is taller than the other boy.

3> much / a lot / even / far + 比较级

A compute is much more expensive than a bicycle. 计算机比自行车贵多了。

4> "The+形容词比较级…, the+形容词比较级…", 表示 " 越… 就越…"。

The more you study, the more you know. 你学的越多, 就知道的越多。

5> " 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ", 表示 " 越来越… "。

The computer is cheaper and cheaper. 计算机越来越便宜。

  1. 最高级不一定就是第一

1> Who / Which + be +最高级, A, B, or C ?

Who is the tallest, Tom, Jack, or David? Tom, Jack与David三个人中谁最高?

Which is the most expensive, a bicycle, a motorcycle, or a car? 自行车,摩托车和汽车,哪一个最贵?

2> ~ + be + one of the +最高级 +复数名词, 表示"最……的……之一"。

The Yellow River is one of the longest rivers in China. 黄河是中国最长的河流之一。

3> "…+ be +the + 序数词 +最高级 +单数名词 + 范围", 表示"……是…….的第几……"。

She is the second tallest student in our class. 她是我们班第二高的学生。

4> ~ + be + the 最高级 ~ that 某人 have/ has ever + 过去分词.

This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.这是我看过的最有趣的书。

没有比较级的形容词和副词

1)有些程度副词,如:quite, rather, comparatively, incomparably, relatively, fairly等与形容词连用具有"比较"含义。故这时句中的形容词不能再使用比较级。

例如:

It is a set of comparatively new instrument in our laboratory.

This book is rather difficult for the juniors, but fairly easy for the seniors.

2)下列几类形容词也没有比较等级:

(1)表示"终极"意义或绝对概念的形容词或副词。如:absolute(ly), blind, dead, excellent, entire, living, full, perfect(ly), round, relative, wrong等。

(2)表示时间、方位或方向的形容词或副词。如:back, backward, forward, front, past, monthly, weekly, present, southern, vertical等。

(3)部分表示事物性质、物质材料或结构成分的形容词。如:atomic, cultural, economic, educational, golden, political, scientific, silken, urban, wooden等。

(4)本身具有"最"或"唯一"概念的形容词。如:maximal, mere, minimal, matchless, sole, only unique等。

真题再现

  1. -Which is ____ season in Beijing?(2003年)

-I think it’s autumn.

A.good B.better C.best D.the best

解析:正确答案为D。该题的核心词为season。根据比较级与最高级的知识,两者之间用比较级,而三者或三者以上用最高级,北京有四季,因此本题应选择最高级。又因为形容词最高级前要加定冠词the,因此答案为D。

    • Which is__________ , the sun, the moon or the earth?(2004年)

– Of course, the moon is.

A.small B.smaller C.smallest D.the smallest

解析:正确答案为D。该题的核心词在第一句句尾,"the sun, the moon or the earth",提问的对象为三者,应该选择最高级。

  1. The air in Beijing is getting much _____ now than a few years ago.(2005年)

A. clean B. cleaner C. cleanest D. the cleanest

解析:正确答案为B。该题的核心词为than,than一词是比较级的标志。

  1. Mobile phones are very popular now and they are _____ than before.(2005年)

A. cheap B. cheaper C. cheapest D. the cheapest

解析:正确答案为B。该题与第三题相似,核心词为than。


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