【语法】初中英语语法:常用动词注意事项
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一、主动表被动的情况动词注意点

1. 感观系动词,look, seem, sound, feel, smell, taste等

eg. The fish tastes nice.

2. measure, weigh等表示度量的动词。

eg. The elephant weights nearly a ton.

  1. wash, clean, open, sell, read, last, write, steer等不及物动词可以表示被动意义。eg. The ship steer easily.

二、被动句表示主动含义

She was dressed in a red skirt.

此类动词常见于dress, seat, devote, adapt, accustom 等后面可以接反身代词的动词。

时态,语态

1. 用进行时表示一种情绪。

She is always helping others.(表赞扬)

The man is always smoking in the office, which offends others very much.

  1. 一般过去时表示某一动作已完成,过去进行时表示动作可能未完成。

He wrote a letter yesterday morning.(信已写完)

He was writing a letter yesterday evening. (信可能还未写完)

3.现在完成时可表示动作持续至今,一般过去时则表示动作已结束,并不强调对现在造成的影响或结果。

I have lived in this street.(我一直住这条街上)

I lived in this street.(我曾住在这条街上)

4.表示几个连续动作时,尽管有先后,仍要用相同时态。

He came into the classroom, put down the book and wrote a few words on the blackboard.

  1. 在条件和时间状语从句中常用一般时表示将来。

6.叙述过去发生的某件事情常用一般过去时,表示过去某个时间或动作之后发生的事情才用过去将来时,过去某个时刻/段内正发生的事情,才用过去进行时,过去某个时间或动作之前发生的事情才用过去完成时。因此找准时间的参照点,是正确运用时态的关键。

7.罗列并熟记各种时态的被动形式。

三.动词的类别与特征中的注意点

1.兼作Vt., Vi.的动词

(1)对兼作Vt., Vi.的动词,要注意根据不同的情况选择使用。

The children are flying their kites in the square.( Vt.)

We saw a plane flying high up in the sky.( Vi.)

(2)有些动词后跟从句时为Vt.,其它情况为Vi.,但意义基本不变。典型的有wonder, think, insist, agree,等。

The headmaster insisted that the students should wear school uniforms .

The headmaster insisted on the students wearing school uniforms.

(3)有些动词在Vt. Vi.之间,意义有所不同。如run, stand, lie等

She stood alone under the tree.

I can’t stand such cold weather.

2.常用的双宾动词有give, teach, lend, bring, explain, send, offer, pay, sell, buy, tell, show, write, ask, wish, read等,这些动词都带有一定的趋向性。因此转换成带介词的情况时,常可用for , to 来转换。

注意:explain sth. to sb.=explain to sb. sth., describe sth. to sb.=describe to sb. sth.

3.带宾补的动词,注意宾补的逻辑主语是动词宾语

宾补常是名词、形容词、介词短语,副词和非谓语动词等。常见的此类动词有make, have, let, get, keep, find, see, feel, notice等,但要注意不同的动词有不同的接法。

He kept the children   (keep不能用不定式作宾补)

Make…do, have…do/doing/done,get…to do/done, find…doing/done, leave…to do/doing/介词短语/a./ad., see…doing/do/done

4.后面常接-ing的动词及短语:suggest, finish, avoid, can’t help, mind, need, enjoy, require, postpone, delay, practice, fancy, excuse, pardon, advise, consider, deny, admit, endure, escape, miss, appreciate, dislike, have a good time doing, put off, call off, give up

5.有些动词后面接to do 和-ing时意义基本相同,而有的则完全不同,要注意

Love, like, hate, forget, remember, stop, begin, start, continue, prefer, regret, intend, mean, want, need, require, neglect, try, deserve, can’t bear等

6.注意状态动词和动态动词的选用

Mother asked the son to notice his manners at the party. (notice就改为mind)

再如:listen/hear, look/see, look for/find, advise/persuade, marry/be married, join/be in等。

7.注意have表“有”时,及系动词一般不能用进行时态。

8.注意表示“有”时,have与there be 的选用

9.注意动词词组分类(见<零距离>),尤其要注意各类动词词组的使用特点及有的动词词组的主被动转换使用。

Make use of sth→sth is made use of(介词不要掉了)/use is made of sth.

10.Hope, intend, expect, plan, want, think, mean 等动词用过去完成时表示没有实现的愿望,计划,打算等。


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