【短语】中考英语重难点汇总
发布于 5个月前 作者 一只绿色的🍋 3066 次浏览 来自 中考

一.英语语法重点与难点

1、 as…as…结构:你和汤姆是一样好的孩子。

You’re a boy as good as Tom.=You’re as good a boy as Tom.

2、 (1)too…to与 so…that sb. can’t…的句型转换:前者为简单句,主语只有一个,而后者为复合句,主语有两个,试比较:

The man was too angry to be able to speak.

The man was so angry that he wasn’t able to speak.

The milk was too hot to drink.

The milk was so hot that we can’t drink it.

(2) too…to…与 not enough to句型的转换:

He is too young to get married.=He is not old enough to get married.

The book is too difficult for me to read.=

The book is not easy enough for me to read.

3、 形容词原级表示比较级含义:

约翰不象迈克那么苯。

John is not so stupid as Mike.

John is less stupid than Mike.

John is cleverer than Mike.

4、 用比较级表示最高级:约翰是班里最高的男生。

John is taller than any other boy in the class.

John is the tallest boy in the class.

John is taller than :any other boy.

any of the other boy.

all the other boy.

any of the others.

any one else.

5、 the more…… the more….表示“越……越……”:

The more books you read, the wider your knowledge is.

The more food you eat, the fatter you are.

6、 more and more….表示“越来……越……”:

More and more students realized the importance of a foreign language.

Our country is getting stronger and stronger.

Mid-Autumn Festival

Mid-Autumn Day

二.中考考点—词组

初中阶段大致有150组词语辨析,近几年中考英语常考的有20组左右。中考试题考查词语辨析主要是每组词或短语之间的细小差别,是为了检测同学们辨别词形和运用词汇的能力。

词语辨析集中在对实词,即对名词、动词、形容词、副词等的考查。主要考查同义、近义、形近词汇的辨析以及词组与习惯用法的辨析。

  1. after, in 这两个介词都可以表示“……(时间)以后”的意思

after 以过去为起点,表示过去一段时间之后,常用于过去时态的句子中?如:She went after three days. 她是三天以后走的

in 以现在为起点,表将来一段时间以后,常用于将来时态的句子中?如:She will go in three days. 她三天以后要走

  1. how long, how often, how soon

how long指多长时间,主要用来对一段时间(如three days, four weeks 等)提问?如:How long ago was it? 这是多久前的事了?

how often指每隔多久,主要用来对频率副词或状语(如once a week等)提问?如:—How often does he come here? —Once a month. 他(每隔)多久来一次?每月一次。

how soon指再过多久,主要用来对表示将来的一段时间(in an hour, in two weeks 等)提问?如:How soon can you come? 你多快能赶来?

  1. few, a few, little, a little, several, some

few 和little的意思是否定的,表示“很少”或“几乎没有”;而a few和a little的意思是肯定的,表示“有一些,有一点儿”

few 和 a few修饰可数名词;little 和 a little 修饰不可数名词

several用于修饰可数名词,语意比a few和some更肯定,含有“好几个”的意思

some可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词,从数量上说,它有时相当于a few 或 a little,有时指更多一些的数量

  1. the other, another

the other 指两个人或事物中的“另一个”,表示特指?如:We stood on one side of the road and they stood on the other. 我们站在街这边,他们站在那边

another着重于不定数目中的“另外一个”,表示泛指,所以常用来指至少三个中的一个?如:She has taken another of my books. 她已经拿了我的另外一本书

  1. spend, take, cost, pay

spend的宾语通常是时间?金钱?在主动语态中,句子的主语必须是人,而且后面不能用动词不定式做它的宾语?如:She spent the whole evening in reading. 她把整个晚上用来读书

take常常用来指“花费”时间,句子的主语通常是表示事物的词语?如:How long will this job take you?你做这项工作要花多长时间?

cost 指花费时间?金钱或力气等,只能用表示事物的词做主语,并且不能用于被动语态?如:How much does the jacket cost?这件夹克多少钱?

pay 主要指主语(某人)买某物(或为某事)付多少钱(给某人)?如:I pay for my rooms by month. 我按月支付租金

  1. speak, say, talk, tell

这四个动词都有“说”的意思?speak的意思是“讲话;演讲”,着重指说话的动作,指开口说或连续不断地说,多用作不及物动词;用作及物动词时,其宾语是语言名称?如:He can speak Japanese. 他会说日语。

say的意思是“说;讲”,一般用作及物动词,着重指说话的内容?它的宾语可以是名词?代词或直接引语等?如:She says, “Don’t draw on the wall!”她说:“别在墙上画画!”

talk的意思是“说;讲;谈话”,与speak意义比较接近,但不如speak正式,着重强调两人之间的相互谈话,也可指单方面的谈话?如:She is talking with John in English.她正在和约翰用英语交谈。

tell意为“告诉;讲述;吩咐”,多指以口头方式将某事告诉某人,常接双宾语?除了story, news, truth, joke, lie(谎言)等直接宾语外,还可以接人等间接宾语?如:She is telling the children a story.她正在给孩子们讲故事。

  1. among, between

between 的意思是“在……中间,在……之间”,一般指在两者之间?如:There is a table between two windows. 在两扇窗户之间有一张桌子。between 有时也表示在多于两个以上的事物之间,但那是指在每二者之间。如:the relationship between different provinces and municiplities 省市和省市之间的关系(这里是指每两个省市之间的相互关系?)

  1. beat, win

这两个词都有“获胜,打败”的意思,但其后宾语不同?beat是“打败,优于”的意思,后面接人或队?如:We beat them. 我们打败了他们。

win指“赢,获胜”,后面接比赛?名次?如:We won the match/game/race/the first place. 我们赢了这场比赛(获得了第一名)。

  1. agree with, agree on, agree to

agree on表示“就……取得一致意见”?如:We all agree on (making) an early start. 我们一致同意及早出发?

agree with表示“与……意见一致”,后面既可以跟表示人的名词或人称代词,也可以跟表示意见。看法的名词或what引导的从句?。如:I agree with you without reservation.我毫无保留地同意你的意见。We agree with what you said just now.我们同意你刚才所说的意见。

agree to后面不能接人,只能接“提议,计划,方案”等词句?如:I agree to the terms proposed. 我同意拟议的条件。

  1. bring, take, carry,fetch

这四个词都是动词,都含有“带”或“拿”的意思,但使用的场合各不相同。

bring作“带来,拿来”解?如:Next time don’t forget to bring me a copy of your work. 下次不要忘了把一份你的作品带给我。

take是bring的对语,作“带去,拿去”解?如:Take the box away, please. 请把盒子拿走。

carry表示“运载,携带”之意,运送的方式很多,可以用车、船,也可以用手甚至

用头。如:This bus is licensed to carry 100 passengers. 这辆巴士准载一百人。

fetch则表示“去拿来”的意思。如:Please fetch me the documents in that room. 请到那间房间去把文件拿来给我。

  1. each, every

两词都是“每个”的意思,但着重点不同。each着重个别的情况,every着重全体,有“所有的”的意思。如:She knows each student of the class.她认识这个班里的每一个学生。She knows every student of the class.她认识这个班所有的学生。

  1. no one, none

no one指“没有人(只能指人,不能用来指物)”,意思与nobody相同,作主语时不必跟of连用,如:No one believes him since he is not honest. 没有人相信他,因为他不诚实。No one else but I went. 除我以外,谁也没去。

none指“一个也没有(既可指人,也可指物)”,作主语时代替不可数名词,谓语动词用单数形式;代替可数名词,谓语动词用单、复数都可以。但在“主+系+表”结构中,如果表语为复数,则系动词要用复数形式。如:None of us are(is) afraid of difficulties. 我们谁也不怕困难。

  1. go on doing, go on to do, go on with

这三个动词短语都有“继续做某事”的意思,其区别如下:go on doing表示“继续做,一直在做某事(中间无间断)”;go on to do表示“接着做某事”,即某事已做完,接着做另一件事;go on with也表示“继续做某事”,其含义是某一动作一度中止后,又继续下去。

  1. too much, much too

二者都有“太,非常”之意,much too为副词词组,修饰形容词?副词,不可修饰动词。如:It’s much too cold.天气实在是太冷了。

too much作“太多”讲,有以下三种用法?

(1)作名词词组 如:You have given us too much. 你给我们的太多了。

(2)作形容词词组修饰不可数名词 如:Don’t drink too

much wine. 不要饮太多的酒

(3)作副词词组修饰不及物动词 如:She talks too much. 她说话太多

  1. lonely, alone

二者都可表示“孤独,独自”,alone指客观存在的“孤独”,而lonely更偏重一种主观感受上的“寂寞”。如:I went alone. 我是一个人去的。Mary lived alone, but she didn’t feel lonely. 玛丽孤身一人生活,但她并不感到孤独

  1. happen, take place与occur

happen有“偶然”的意思,多用于客观事物?情况的发生?。如:Whatever has happened to your arm? It’s all swollen. 你的手臂怎么了?肿得好历害!

occur 指有计划地使某些事“发生”,有时强调“呈现”于人的知觉中。如:Did it occur to you to phone them about it?你难道没想到就这事给他们打个电话?

具体事物?事件作主语时,happen和occur可以通用?如:The accident happened/occurred yesterday. 事故是昨天发生的。

take place 指事件发生,但常用来表示“举行”的意思,带有非偶然性?例如:The meeting took place last night.会议昨晚举行。

  1. in front of, in the front of

in front of的意思是“在……前面”。如:There is a tree in front of the house.房子前面有一棵树。

in the front of的意思是“在……前部”,指在某个空间范围内的前面。如:There is a blackboard in the front of the classroom. 教室里前部有一块黑板

  1. find, find out

两者都有“发现”的意思,但语义有差别。find有偶然发现某物的意味。如:He found a bag on the floor. 他发现地板上有个书包。

find out指“经过,探听,询问”,指调查之后的“发现”或“弄清楚”。如:Please find out who took my book by mistake.请查清楚谁错拿了我的书。

  1. noise, voice, sound

这三个词都作“声音”解,在表示“听到声音”这个意思时,三者可以通用,但它们又各有特定的含义。

sound 作“声音”解,含义最广,指可以听到的任何声音,如:a weak sound 微弱的声

noise作“噪音,嘈杂声,吵闹声”解,指不悦耳,不和谐的声音,它既可作可数名

词,也可作不可数名词。如:Another kind of pollution is noise. 另外一种污染是噪音。

voice 作“声音”解时,多指人发出的声音,包括说话声、歌声和笑声。如:He shouted at the top of voice. 他高声呼喊。有时也用于引申意义,作“意见、发言权”解。如:I have no voice in the matter. 对于这件事,我没有发言权。

  1. arrive, get, reach

三者均可表示“到达”,arrive后通常接介词at(一般用于较小的地方)或 in(一般用于较大的地方)?如:We arrived at the station five minutes late. 我们晚了5分钟到车站?又如:They will arrive in Paris next Monday. 他们将于下周星期一到达巴黎?

get之后通常接介词to。如:When we got to the park, it began to rain. 我们到达公园时,就开始下雨了。

reach是及物动词(较 get更正式),其后可直接跟地点名词做宾语(不能用介词)。如:He reached Beijing yesterday. 他昨天到达北京。

三.情态动词。

1.考查情态动词表示“推测”的用法

[考点快忆] 表示肯定推测的情态动词有:must“一定;准是”,may“也许;可能”,might“或许”;表示否定推测的情态动词有:can’t“不可能”, couldn’t“不会”,may not“也许不”,might not“或许不”;can表示推测时不用于肯定句,may表示推测时不用于疑问句。

2.考查情态动词引起的一般疑问句的答语

[考点快忆] 回答must时,肯定答语用must,否定答语用needn’t或don’t have to。回答need时,肯定答语用must,否定答语用needn’t。回答may时,肯定答语用may,否定答语用mustn’t 或can’t。

3.考查情态动词的意义

[考点快忆] must “必须”;have to“不得不”; need “必须;需要”; can(could)“能;可能”;may (might) “可以;可能”; shall,will (would)“将;会;愿意;要”; should“应当”。 “had better (not) + 动词原形”表示建议;have to / has to / had to的否定,疑问形式要借助于助动词do / does / did。

四.中考英语被动语态重点复习

重点一:一般现在时的被动语态am/is/are+动词过去分词

If I_____ five minutes, I’ll get everything ready.(2008,湖北黄冈)

A. will give B be give C. am given D. was given

解析:C首先,读题发现本题主要考查的动词是give。故可知句意为如果再给我5分钟,我将完成所有事情。也就是说已经到了所规定的时限了,我已经没有更多时间了。再看选项,

B、C、D选项考查的是不同时态的被动语态,A选考查主动语态,根据句意可知,本题考查的是被动语态,故排除A。然而句中没有出现明显表时间的词语,那么怎么判断时态呢?再看句子结构,可知本句是由If引导的条件句,主句用一般将来时态,从句应用一般现在时,排除D,而与我搭配的be的形式是am,故正确答案为C。

重点二:一般过去时的被动语态was/were+过去分词

Liu Xiang _____ by his coach to train regularly. (2010,天津)

A. advised B. advises C. was advised D. be advised

解析:C首先,读题,发现需要填的是谓语,再看题干出现by his coach,初步判断考查被动语态。再根据题干和选项可知句意为刘翔的教练建议他要有规律的进行训练。可知考查的就是被动语态,那么,可将选项A、B排除,剩下C、D均是被动语态,但区别是C选项为was,D选项为be,选择哪个呢?再来看题干,主语是LiuXiang(第三人称单数,所以要用be的第三人称单数),故正确答案是C。

重点三:一般将来时的被动语态will+be+动词过去分词

A new school _____ in my hometown next year.(2007,福建)

A. build B. will build C. will be built D. has built

解析:C首先读题发现本题主要考查的动词是build。故可以猜测句意为明年我的家乡将建一所新学校。再看句子,主语是a new school,新学校是无生命的物体,故是不能发出动作来的,所以只能是build的动作承受者。这样我们便可以确定句子的语态了——被动语态。再看选项,只有C是被动语态。那为什么会出现will呢?因为在题干中出现了next year这个表将来的时间状语。故完全确定了正确选项是C。

重点四:含有情态动词的被动语态can/may/must等+be+过去分词

1.Somethingmust_____tostopthefactoryfrompouringwastewaterintotherivers。(2007,天津)

A. be done B. do C. was seen D. had seen

解析:A首先,读题发现句子我们选择合适的谓语形式。由于句子没有明确的线索告诉我们就是考查的被动语态,所以根据题意我们可以猜测一下题干的意思:必须……来阻止工厂向河里排放污水。所以我们可以将选项逐个带入题目里,A带入后句意为:必须采取措施来阻止工厂向河里排放污水。B带入后句意为某物做来阻止向河里排放污水。(语义不通)C带入后句意为某物被看到用来向河里排放污水。(语义不通)D带入后句意为某物曾看到阻止向河里排放污水。(语义不通)题目的主语是something以表物的不定代词作主语,物是没有生命的东西,故是不能主动做出任何动作的

五.中考英语复习重点 There be 的句子结构

There be是一个“存在”句型,表示“有”的意思,

肯定句的形式为:There be + 名词(单数或复数)+地点状语或时间状语。

be动词单复数的确定,看be后边第一个名词,当所接主语为单数或不可数名词时,be动词形式为is;当所接主语为复数名词时,be动词为are;当be动词后接两个以上主语时,be动词与最临近主语保持数上的一致。意思为“某地有某人或某物”。如:

There is an eraser and two pens on the desk. 桌子上有一块橡皮和两支钢笔。

There are two pens and an eraser on the desk. 桌上有两支钢笔和一块橡皮。

(1)there be的否定句,即在be的后面加上not。

否定形式为:There be + not + (any) + 名词+地点状语。

There is not any cat in the room. 房间里没猫。

There aren’t any books on the desk. 桌子上没书。

(2)there be句型的疑问句就是将be提到句首:Be there + (any) +名词+地点状语

肯定回答:Yes, there is / are. 否定回答:No, there isn’t / aren’t.

-Is there a dog in the picture?画上有一只狗吗

-Yes, there is. 有。

-Are there any boats in the river?河里有船吗

-No, there aren’t. 没有。

(3)特殊疑问句:How many . . . are there (+地点状语)

某地有多少人或物回答用There be . . .

There’s one. / There are two / three / some . . .

有时直接就用数字来回答。One. / Two . . .

-How many students are there in the classroom?教室里有多少学生

-There’s only one. / There are nine. 只有一个。/有九个。

(4)如果名词是不可数名词,用:How much + 不可数名词 + is there + 地点状语

How much water is there in the cup?杯中有多少水

六.中考对定语从句的考查主要集中在以下几个方面:

1.定语从句的功用和结构

在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如: This is the present that he gave me for my birthday

2.关系代词和关系副词的功用

关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。

  1. 作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如: I don’t like people who talk much but do little.

The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well.

  1. 作宾语:She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday.

The book that my grandmother gave me is called “The Great Escape”.

  1. 作定语

关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语用。例如:

What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor?

The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard.

  1. 作状语 I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.

三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

  1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

The person who broke the window must pay for it.

The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.

  1. whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如:

Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate?

Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come.

  1. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如:

The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today.

I know the boy whose father is a professor.

  1. which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:

A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.

Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.

  1. that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:

I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.

Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?

  1. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

  1. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

This is the house where we lived last year.

The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.

四. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:

That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room

which we had lived in for ten years.

五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

  1. 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

(1) 先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如:

All that he said is true.

(2) 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:

He is the only foreigner that has been to that place.

(3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:

He was the second (person) that told me the secret.

(4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。

This is the best book (that) I have read this year.

(5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:

He talked about the people and the things he remembered.

  1. 只能用which,不用that 的情况:

(1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如:

The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.

(2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:

The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.

考查的主要形式是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。阅读理解和书面表达肯定也要用到定语从句。


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