【语法】初中英语语法:一般将来时和过去将来时
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一般将来时和过去将来时

一般将来时构成如下:

肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

I shall work Shall i work? I shall not work Shall i not work?

He(she,it) Will he He(she,it)will Will he (she,it)

will work (she,it)work? not work. not work?

We shall work Shall we work? We shall not work Shall we not work?

You will work Will you work? You will not work Will you not work?

They will work Will they work? They will not work Will they not work?

其结构有如下几种: 1)will + 动词原形(will可以用于任何人称) 需要注意的是当主语是第一人称时will可以换成shall,特别是在以I或we作主语的问句中,一般用shall. e.g. Shall we go to the zoo? 2)be going to +动词原形 3)现在进行时也可表示将来,前边已经讲过,这里不在重复.

第一种结构的句式变化是: 变否定句在will后边加not. 变一般疑问句把will提前. e.g. She will be back in three days. She will not be back in three days. Will She be back in three days? 第二种结构的句式变化要在be上做文章. E.g. They are going to clean their classroom. They are not going to clean their classroom. Are they going to clean their classroom?

其时间状语有如下几种 1)this引导的短语 如 this year 2)tomorrow及其相关短语如tomorrow morning 3)next引导的短语 如 next month 4) from now on ; in the future ; in an hour 等。

一般将来时基本用法如下:

1 一般将来时用来表示纯粹的将来事实。一般将来时常和表示将来的时间状语连用

如:tomorrow,next week,next month,next year 等

如:He will come next week

他下个星期回来

2 一般将来时也可以与now,today,tonight等时间词语连用

如:I shall do it now.

我现在就做这事

3 常与表时间的状语从句连用

如: When i have time, i’ll go

我有时间就去

4 与条件状语从句连用

如:He’ll help you if you ask him

你提出请求,他就会帮助你。

5 有时候条件状语从句可以省略或是暗含在上下文之中

如:Don’t disturb him, he’ll be angry.

不要打扰他,他会生气的。

6 用于状语从句中。表示时间和条件的状语从句一般用一般现在时表将来。但有时亦可用一般将来时。连词before引导的时间状语从句可用一般将来时。

如:You must fill out the application form and be inter viewed before you will be considered for the job.

你必须先填好申请书,经过面谈,然后才会被考虑雇佣的问题。

7 用于一般疑问句,内含助动词shall的一般将来时常用在由shall或是shall we 引导的一般疑问句中。询问对方的意图或是愿望。回答shall i 问句时候,不可以用yes,you shall 或是 No you shall not,而是说yes please(或是please do)或是no please do not (或是please do not)。 回答shall we 问句时候应该说yes ,let’s 或是no i don’t think we shall

如:Shall i help you?

Yes please

No please don’t

Shall we call a taxi?

Yes let’s

No I don’t think we shall

一、易忽视动词用原形形式

例:1 He will is (be) at school next Monday.

2 He is going to does (do) his homework after school.

答案:1 be 2 do

解析:第一题有的同学一看he做主语就用了is,忽视了will后应加动词原形。我们在写句子时,很容易把动词丢掉,“英语句子里,动词不能少”的规律必须要牢记。第二题中to后加动词原形,而不是用单三人称.。

二、be going to +动词原形与will+动词原形用法不清楚

例:我正努力学习,准备参加英语考试。

I am studying hard and I will try for my English exams.

答案:I am studying hard and I am going to try for my English exams.

解析:“be going to” 表示计划、打算要做某事。E.g. He is going to visit his friends. 还表示某种迹象表明会发生某事.e.g. Look at the clouds. It’s going to rain. 而“Will+动词原形 ”指对将来事物的预见、表示意愿、决心。E.g. I will wait for you until you come. 在单纯预测未来时,二者可以互换,但在此题中只能用be going to,而不能用will。

将来时的一些特殊用法

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。

will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。

Which paragraph shall I read first.

Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month。

c. 有迹象要发生的事

Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

3)  be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用

5) be going to / will

用于条件句时, be going to 表将来

will 表意愿

If you are going to make a journey, you’d better get ready for it as soon as possible.

Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

  1. be to和be going to

be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。

be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。

I am to play football tomorrow afternoon.   (客观安排)

I’m going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)

7) 一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.

2)倒装句,表示动作正在进行,如:

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.

3)在时间或条件句中。

When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.

I’ll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。

I hope they have a nice time next week.

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

  1. 用现在进行时表示将来

意为:"意图"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay等。

I’m leaving tomorrow.

Are you staying here till next week?

自主检测:

(一)、 单选

1 _____you ____a doctor when you grow up?

A Will; going to be B Are; going to be C Are; / D Will; be

2 I don’t know if his uncle _____. I think he _____ if it doesn’t rain.

A will come; comes B will come; will come C comes; comes D comes; will come

3 He will be back _____a few minutes.

A with B for C on D in

4 What time _____we meet at the gate tomorrow?

A will B shall C do D are

5 He will have a holiday as soon as he _____the work next week.

A finishes B doesn’t finish C will finish D won’t finish

6 There _____some showers this afternoon.

A will be B will have C is going to be D are going to have

7 It ____my brother’s birthday tomorrow. She _____a party.

A is going to be; will have B will be; is having C will be; is going to have D will have; is going to be

8 Li Ming is 10 years old now, next year he _____11.

A is B is going to be C will be D will to be

答案:1 B 2B 3 D 4 B 5A 6A 7 C 8 C

(二)、 填空

1 -“I need some paper.”

  • “I ____(bring)some for you.”

2____(be)you free tomorrow?

3 They _________(not leave) until you come back.

4 we(go) to the party together this afternoon?

5 They want to know when the meeting _____start.

6 I _____(go) with you if I have time.

7 Hurry up! Or we ______(be) late.

8What ____you _______(do) tomorrow afternoon?

9 Jenny ____ _____ (do) an experiment the day after tomorrow.

10 If she isn’t free tomorrow, she _______(not take) part in the party.

答案: 1 will bring 2 Are 3 won’t leave 4Shall go 5 will 6 will go

7 will be 8 are going to do 9 will do 10 won’t take

三、 There be结构的一般将来时易出错

例:There_________ a basketball match this afternoon. (B)

A is going to be B is going to have C are going to be D are going to have

答案:A

解析:There be结构的一般将来时既要符合There be结构,又要符合一般将来时。有的同学认为have当“有”讲,所以选了B,但There be结构就不成立了,此句中is是be going to中的,是由后边的单数名词决定的.

四、 be going to结构中易丢掉to

例:I’m going _______(go) school by bike tomorrow. ©

A to will go B to go to C go to D to go

答案:B

解析:由tomorrow可知是一般将来时,be going to +动词原形,所以先确定用to go , 在B、 D当中选,而go to school 是固定词组,不能因为前边有一个to而省略,这是一个易错点,需要注意。

另外,在时间状语或条件状语从句中,若主句用了将来时,从句则用一般现在时,前边已经讲过,这里不在重复.

过去将来时

过去将来时表示从过去的某一时间来看将来要发生的动作或存在的状态。过去将来时常用于宾语从句和间接引语中。

1过去将来时的构成(句型如下:)

肯定句:主语+be(was,were)going to+动词原形~.

否定句:主语+be(was,were)not going to+动词原形~.

疑问句:Be(Was,Were)+主语+going to+动词原形~?

肯定句:主语+would(should)+动词原形~.

否定句:主语+would(should)not+动词原形~.

疑问句:Would(Should)+主语+动词原形~?

过去将来时的构成 和一般将来时一样,只不过把助动词be变为过去式,把will,shall变为过去式。

I didn’t know if he would come.

=I didn’t know if he was going to come.

我不知道他是否会来。

She was sixty-six. In three years,she would be sixty-nine.

她66岁了。三年后,她是69岁。

She told us that she would not go with us,if it rained.

她告诉我们,如果下雨,她就不和我们一起去了。

I didn’t know how to do it. What would be their ideas?

我不知如何去做,他们会有什么想法呢?

2.过去将来时常可用来表示过去习惯性的动作。此时,不管什么人称,一律用would。

This door wouldn’t open.

这扇门老是打不开。

Whenever he had time,he would do some reading.

他一有时间,总是看书。

I would play with him when was a child.

当我还是孩童时,总是和他一起玩。


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