【双语】妹子有福了,汉子也可看!剑桥博士最新研究
发布于 20天前 作者 kinglism 410 次浏览 来自 高考

洗完头发到底是用吹风机吹干还是让头发自然干?相信这个问题让很多人纠结不已。不过,剑桥博士的最新研究给出了答案。 目前担任英国GHD直发器公司的技术总监、剑桥大学微电子学博士蒂姆·摩尔(Tim Moore)用专业的科学方法为你揭秘关于干发的惊天秘籍~

My own hairline may be receding, but I can promise you this: a perfect blow dry is no accident. However, few people know there’s a scientifically proven technique which will give you the ultimate finish. 我本人的发际线也许正在后退,但我能向你保证:完美的吹发方式能让你万无一失。然而却很少有人知道,有一种从科学上证实有效的方法能让你达到最终的完美效果。

Indeed, it’s my job as a scientist to research how washing and styling can help, or harm, human hair — and from examining hair at the deepest cellular level, I’ve uncovered the secrets of attaining the perfect do. 实际上,我的工作就是作为一名科学工作者研究如何洗头和做造型能够对人的头发有利或有害,从深入细胞层次的头发检验中,我揭开了如何达到完美效果的秘密。

For example, did you know that leaving your hair to dry naturally is more damaging than blow-drying it? Or that going to bed with damp hair could be giving you split ends? So here’s my guide to the perfect way to dry your hair … 比如,你是否知道让头发自然晾干比吹干更损伤发质?头发未干就睡觉可能会导致发尾分叉?那么,以下就是我的完美干发秘诀…

BUILDING BLOCKS 头发的基本知识 Before you learn how to do the perfect blow dry, you need to understand some of the science behind your hair’s structure. 在学习如何进行完美吹发之前,你需要了解一些头发结构背后的科学知识。

Hair is made from the protein keratin, the same substance as nails, feathers and claws. It’s a complicated structure; each shaft is like a rope within a rope. 头发的主要组成成分是角蛋白,它和指甲、羽毛、爪子的成分相同。它的结构比较复杂,每根头发都像是一层裹着一层的绳子。

There’s a protective outer layer known as the cuticle, which is calcified keratin, making it hard like fingernails. In the middle is the cortex, which is also made from keratin, but is more flexible as it’s not calcified. The cortex gives the hair its strength and elasticity. 最外层的保护层是角质层,它是一种钙化的角蛋白,使头发形成指甲一样坚硬的质地。中间层为皮质层,同样由角蛋白构成,但是由于没有钙化,所以比外层更加柔韧,而正是这种皮质使头发富有韧性和弹性。

We each have between 100,000 to 150,000 hairs on our heads. Asian hair is the thickest and strongest, measuring between 80 and 100 microns (a millionth of a metre) and is circular in diameter. 每个人约有10到15万根头发。亚洲人的头发是最厚实的,每根有80到100微米(百万分之一米)粗,并且呈圆柱形。

African hair is elliptical, or oval, and is also the thinnest at about 50 microns. 非洲人的头发横断面呈椭圆形,也是最细的,直径约为50毫米。

Caucasian hair falls between the two; measuring between 50 and 80 microns and is slightly elliptical. On average, we lose 50 to 100 hairs every day. 白种人的头发介于这两者之间,每根有50到80微米粗,呈微椭圆形。每个人平均每天掉50到100根头发。

NATURAL DISASTER 自然灾难 You might imagine that leaving your hair to dry naturally, without using a hairdryer, would be best for it. Wrong! This is possibly the most damaging thing you can do. 你可能会觉得不使用吹风机,而是将头发自然晾干可能是最好的选择。错!这可能是最损伤头发的做法。

How? Well, it starts the moment you wet your hair. It changes the molecular structure of the strand straight away. When water is applied to hair, it is absorbed through the hard outer layer of cuticle into the cortex, which then swells up. This means it’s instantly weakened. 为什么呢?从你打湿头发的那一刻起,头发就开始受损了,发丝的分子结构都发生了改变。当头发接触到水时,角质层坚硬的外层便开始将水吸入皮质,头发得到润涨。这就意味着头发在瞬间变得脆弱。

The cuticle acts a bit like roof tiles, with water going in between the gaps. Hair can absorb up to 30 per cent of its own weight in water. The longer it stays wet, the worse things get, as it continues to swell. This is because repeated swelling followed by slow drying of hair causes it to crack, permanently damaging the hair. 角质层就像屋顶的瓦片一样,水分可以从缝隙中流下。头发最多可以吸收自身重量30%的水分。由于头发吸水会膨胀,所以水分停留的时间越长,对头发的损伤就越大,因为头发在连续的膨胀后又慢慢地变干,导致角质层裂开,形成永久性损伤。

You’d be better off drying your locks quickly with heat, rather than going au naturel. 所以,最好是快速将头发烘干,而不是等它自己干。

CHEAP PRODUCTS 廉价产品 We’ve looked at all sorts of shampoos and conditioners, from basic to high end, and despite what you might hope, the price did make a difference. 洗发水和护发素产品种类繁多,从基础款到高端类型,无论你想选哪一种,不同的价格效果确实不同。

Fascinatingly, though, it was the most luxuriously expensive bottles that weren’t worth the price tag. Once you start paying £30 or more, the results plateau. 有意思的是,最奢华的产品却并非物有所值,30镑(约合人民币260元)以上的产品效果都差不多。

But cheap products weren’t much good either. Instead, choose a mid-tier brand. And up to the £30 a bottle mark, the more you can spend, the better. 但便宜货也不见得多好用,所以要选择中档品牌,以每瓶30镑作为价格上限,在这个范围内可以保证一分钱一分货。

TOWEL DRY WITH CARE 用毛巾轻轻擦干 You’re out of the shower and no doubt you’re in a rush to grab your hair dryer. But first, you must towel-dry your hair. 洗完澡你肯定会第一时间抓起吹风机,不过在此之前一定要用毛巾把头发擦干。

To do this, you should scrunch gently to remove excess water. Don’t rub. Rubbing may break weakened hair, and the resulting different lengths of strand cause hair to look frizzy. 正确的做法是用毛巾轻轻挤干水分。切忌大力摩擦,否则可能损坏脆弱的头发,导致发丝长短不一,看上去不整齐。

COMB WET HAIR 梳理潮湿的头发

▲应慢慢梳理湿发,将损害降到最低,不要用刷子梳理湿发 Don’t brush wet hair. Use a wide-spaced comb, but never a brush, and go slowly to minimise damage. A brush may tear your water-weakened locks, causing instant breakage. 不要用刷子刷潮湿的头发,而应使用宽齿梳子慢慢梳理,把损害降到最小。刷子可能会撕扯因水而变脆弱的头发,瞬间使头发断裂。

DRY BEFORE BED 睡前烘干头发 You should never go to bed with damp hair, either. It may be tempting to save time and only half dry hair before bed, but this is a terrible mistake. 不要让头发湿着就上床睡觉。为了节省时间,你可能会在头发半干的情况下就去睡觉,但这样做是极其错误的。

You might be causing irreversible damage, which could take months to grow out. If you move your head around in your sleep, the friction against the pillow could cause hair breakage. It’s the same if you leave the house with damp hair. 这样可能会造成不可逆性损伤,要花好几个月才能长出来。如果在睡觉过程中调整头的位置,就会与枕头发生摩擦,进而损坏头发。头发没干就出门也会产生同样的后果。

Your hair can also be affected by humidity in the environment, so it may rapidly become frizzy and dull — or suffer from the effects of pollution, with chemical particles causing damage and dryness. 头发也会受环境湿度和污染的影响。湿气会使头发卷曲,失去光泽,化学微粒则会导致头发干枯受损。

LOW SPEED IS BEST 慢速效果最佳 Once you’ve towel dried and combed your hair through, turn on the hairdryer. Use a low heat and speed setting at first. This is so the hair doesn’t overheat. Ideally, holding the hairdryer 15cm from the head and dry with a continuous motion. As soon as hair starts to feel warm it will be about 90 per cent dry, and you can turn up the heat. 用毛巾擦干头发,梳理完毕后,打开吹风机,起初调到低速低温档,让头发不至过热。理想的做法是让吹风机与头部保持15厘米的距离连续烘干,开始觉得头发温暖时说明已经烘干了90%,此时可以调高吹风机温度。

It’s vital that you don’t forget to give it a blast of cool air at the end. It makes a massive difference, ensuring the hair’s internal bonds are remade and sealing the style in place. 别忘了在最后阶段调成凉风,这一步很重要,可以保证头发的内部联结得以重塑,固定发型。

UPSIDE DOWN? 头发倒着吹?

▲倒着吹头发会显得头发蓬松,不过,最好的方法是把吹风机的风嘴尽量靠近头皮,干发效果更佳 Turning your head upside down does give volume, but it’s not necessary. 把头倒过来确实会显得头发蓬松,但没必要这么做。

The best thing is to get the nozzle of the dryer as close to the scalp as possible to get lift. 最好的方法是把吹风机的风嘴尽量靠近头皮,干发效果更佳。

Diffusers can help with curly hair, as they dry slowly and provide volume, lifting moisture out. The air circulates around the curls, defining them and minimising frizz. 扩散风嘴可以吹干卷发,它可以让头发慢慢变干,并且让头发更蓬松,锁住水分。空气在卷发周围循环,可以帮助定型、减少毛躁。

NARROW NOZZLE 窄风嘴 Creating a shiny look is mostly down to aligning your strands of hair — ie making sure they point in the same direction. 调整好发型是打造靓丽造型的关键——比如,确保头发方向一致。

To do this, section your hair and dry one at a time, aiming the dryer downwards as much as possible. This will blow out knots and tangles. Ensure the nozzle of your dryer is narrow, as it makes an enormous difference. 为此,可以分层吹干头发,风筒要尽量朝下,这样可以避免头发缠绕打结。一定要确保风嘴是窄口的,不同风嘴的干发效果还是有很大差别的。

ONLY TONG DRY HAIR 直发器或卷发器只用于干发

▲当头发完全吹干后才能使用直发夹板,否则会损失发质 Only use straighteners or curling tongs on completely dry hair. Applying the heat of tongs to wet hair is catastrophic. As you heat water and turn it from liquid into gas, it expands. Water which is trapped in the cortex will burst out, causing damage. 直发器或者卷发器只能用于完全干燥的头发。将加热后的器械用于湿润的头发会伤害发质。因为加热水分后,它们会从液体变为气体,体积扩大。锁在头皮里的水分会跑出来,从而造成损伤。

If you’re trying to fix a style in place, use hair spray after drying and before straighteners. 如果要做造型的话,要在吹干头发之后、夹直头发之前使用发胶。

TAME CURLY LOCKS 让卷发发质更顺 Straight hair is down to a round follicle, from which the hair emerges like a steel rod. Meanwhile, curly hair comes from an oval follicle. Despite what you might think, science proves it’s easy to dry curls, as described above, use a diffuser. 直发是从圆形毛囊长出来的,像钢条一样;而卷发则是从椭圆形的毛囊长出来的。不管你怎么想,科学证明卷发更容易吹干,像上文所说那样,可以使用扩散风嘴。

PERFECT WEATHER? 哪种天气对头发最好? It might sound bonkers, but the weather can affect your blow dry. It’s less about rain or shine, and more about the moisture in the air. If it’s humid, the style will drop more quickly. Use a heat protective spray to reduce the effect of the humidity. 听起来可能有点不可思议,但天气真的会影响发型。造成这种影响不是晴天或者雨天,而是空气里的水分。如果天气湿润,发型容易塌陷。可以使用一些热保护喷雾来降低湿度对头发的影响。

The ideal weather to achieve a perfect blow dry is a dry, cold, sunny day at zero degrees. Which is why your best hair days happen in the winter, not summer! 对保持发型最有利的是干燥、寒冷、晴朗的零度天气,这就是为什么你的发型在冬天而非夏天更好看。


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