发布于 5个月前 作者 kinglism 1151 次浏览 来自 考研

Mar 24th 2006 From The Economist print edition

The medical uses of mobile phones show they can be good for your health

WHAT impact can mobile phones have on their users’ health? Many people (A) the supposed ill effects caused by radiation from handsets and base stations1, despite the lack of credible evidence of any harm. But evidence for the beneficial effects of mobile phones on health is rather more abundant. Indeed, a systematic review (B) by Rifat Atun and his colleagues at Imperial College, London, ★rounds up[1] 150 examples of the use of text-messaging in the delivery of health care. These uses © three categories: efficiency gains; public-health gains; and direct benefits to patients by incorporating text-messaging into treatment regimes. The study, funded by Vodafone2, the world’s largest mobile operator, was published this week.   (1)Using ★texting[2] to boost efficiency is not rocket science, but big savings can be achieved. Several trials carried out in England have found that the use of text-messaging reminders reduces the number of missed appointments with family doctors by 26-39%, for example, and the number of missed hospital appointments by 33-50%. If such schemes were ★rolled out[3] nationally, this would (D) annual savings of £256m-364m.   Text messages are also being used to remind patients about blood tests, clinics, scans and dental appointments. Similar schemes in America, Norway and Sweden have had equally satisfying results—though the use of text-message reminders in the Netherlands, where non-attendance rates are low, at 4%, had no effect other than to annoy patients.   Text messages can also be a good way to disseminate public-health information, particularly to groups who are hard to reach by other means, such as teenagers, or in developing countries where other means of communication are unavailable. Text messages have been used in India to inform people about the World Health Organisation’s strategy to control tuberculosis, for example, and in Kenya, Nigeria and Mali to provide information about HIV and malaria. In Iraq, text messages were used to support a campaign to vaccinate nearly 5m children against polio.   Finally, there are the uses of text-messaging as part of a treatment regime. These involve sending reminders to patients to take their medicine at the right time, or to encourage compliance with exercise regimes or efforts to stop smoking. (2)The evidence for the effectiveness of such schemes is generally ★anecdotal[4], however, notes Dr Rifat. More quantitative research is needed—which is why his team also published three papers this week (E) the use of mobile phones in health care in more detail. One of these papers, written in conjunction with Victoria Franklin and Stephen Greene of the University of Dundee, in Scotland, reports the results of a trial in which diabetic teenagers’ treatment was (F) with text messaging.   Diabetes needs constant management, and requires patients to take an active role in their treatment by measuring blood-sugar levels and administering insulin injections. (3)The most effective form of therapy is an intensive regime in which patients adjust the dose of insulin depending on what they eat. This is more ★onerous[5] for the patient, but (G) a greater dietary variety. Previous studies have shown that intensive treatment is effective only with close supervision by doctors. Dr Franklin and her colleagues devised a system called Sweet Talk, which sends patients personalised text messages reminding them of the treatment goals they have set themselves, and allowing them to send questions to doctors. The Sweet Talk system was tested over a period of 18 months with teenage patients receiving both conventional and intensive diabetes treatment. A control group received conventional treatment and no text messages.

The researchers found that the use of text-messaging significantly increased “self-efficacy”3 (the effectiveness of treatment, measured by questionnaire). More importantly, among patients receiving intensive therapy, the level of haemoglobin HbA1c4—an indicator of blood-glucose and hence of glycaemic control—was 14% lower than for those in the control group. Since even a 10% decline in HbA1c level is (H) a reduction in complications such as eye and kidney problems, this is an impressive result. It suggests that texting can cheaply and effectively support intensive therapy among teenagers, who often demonstrate poor compliance5.

Despite such promising results, Dr Rifat notes, many of the medical uses of text-messaging have not yet been __ (I) _ clinical trials, because they are so new. And even where the benefits are proven, the technology has not been systematically deployed on a large scale. But when it (J) improving outcomes and reducing costs, (4)text messages would seem to be just what the doctor ordered.


  1. Fill in each blank with an appropriate form of each following phrasal verb. One verb can only and must be chosen once. ①look at, ②subject to, ③allow for, ④carry out, ⑤associate with, ⑥worry about,⑦back up, ⑧come to, ⑨fall into, ⑩translate into A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.
  2. Translate the underlined sentences into Chinese.


  1. round up v.(赶往)监狱,围捕;归拢,聚集;五入以成整数 1)if police or soldiers round up a particular group of people, they find them and force them to go to prison e.g. Thousands of men were rounded up and jailed. 数以千计的人被围捕并关进监狱。 2)to find and gather together a group of people, animals or things e.g. See if you can round up a few friends to help you!我倒要看看你能找着几个朋友帮你。 His dog Nell started to round up the sheep.他的狗奈尔开始把羊朝一起赶。 3)to increase an exact figure to the nearest whole number (+to) e.g. A charge of 1.90 will be rounded up to 2, and one of 3.10 rounded down to 3. 把 1.90 英镑的费用上调为整数 2 英镑, 把 3.10 英镑下调为整数 3 英镑.

2.text v.发送短信 to send someone a written message on a mobile phone

3.roll out v.推出,推开;发行,启动 to make a new product available for people to buy or use;=launch e.g. The company expects to roll out the new software in September.公司计划在9月份推出这款新软件。

4.anecdotal adj.趣闻轶事的,个人见闻的 consisting of short stories based on someone’s personal experience e.g. His findings are based on anecdotal evidence rather than serious research.他的发现都是基于传闻证据而非认真研究。(anecdotal evidence在心理学上称为“轶事证据”, 即粗浅的证据,经常以故事形式出现:比如“我记得那时……”,“我听说……”。轶事是出了名的不准确。也有人译为“传闻证据”、“观察证据”、“轶闻证据”等。)

5.onerous adj.(正式)(工作或责任)困难且令人焦虑的;累人的 work or a responsibility that is onerous is difficult and worrying or makes you tired.


  1. 基站(Base station):是指采用蜂窝方式组网的GSM移动通信系统、CDMA移动通信系统、数字集群通信系统、PHS无线接入系统以及采用其他技术体制的无线电通信系统的基站及其室外直放站。基站所使用的频率必须已经国家或省级无线电管理机构批准;使用的发射设备必须具有国家无线电管理机构核发的《无线电发射设备型号核准证》。
  2. 沃达丰(Vodafone):是跨国性的移动电话营办商。总部设在英国波克夏郡的纽布利(Newbury)及德国的杜塞尔多夫。现时为世界上最大的流动通讯网络公司之一,在全球27个国家均有投资。在另外14个国家则与当地的移动电话营办商合作,联营移动电话网络。截至2004年12月31日,沃达丰在全球拥有大约一亿五千一百八十万名用户。沃达丰使用沃达丰集团作为名称,分别于伦敦证券交易所(代号VOD.L)及纽约证券交易所(代号VOD)上市。沃达丰(Vodafone)的名称结合了Voice(语音)-Data(数据)-Fone(电话)三个意思。
  3. 自我效能感(self-efficacy):即一个人对自己成功地完成某种任务、达到既定水平的确信程度。
  4. 糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c):是血红蛋白A组分的某些特殊分子部位和葡萄糖经过缓慢而不可逆的非酶促反应结合而形成的,当血液中葡萄糖浓度较高时,人体所形成的糖化血红蛋白含量也会相对较高。人体内红细胞的寿命一般为120天,在红细胞死亡前,血液中糖化血红蛋白含量也会保持相对不变。因此糖化血红蛋白水平反映的是在检测前120天内的平均血糖水平,而与抽血时间,病人是否空腹,是否使用胰岛素等因素无关,是判定糖尿病长期控制的良好指标。它反映4~8周的体内血糖的平均水平,并可能是造成糖尿病并发症的一个重要原因。
  5. 依从性(compliance):是指患者执行医疗措施的程度,亦即患者执行医嘱的程度。患者能完全按医嘱要求执行者称为依从性好,否则称为不依从性。

每天一条短信…… (陈继龙 学译)










[KEY TO QUIZ] A.worry about B.carried out C.fall into 分成,变成(如:The lecture series falls naturally into three parts. 该系列讲座可自然分作三部分。) D.translate into 转化为(如:I wonder how your religious belief will translate into political action. 我不知道你的宗教信仰如何转化为政治行动。) E.looking at 考虑(如:That’s the way I look at it, too. 我也是这么想。) F.backed up 支持,援助(如:He drought along a file of document to back up his claim. 他随身携带一卷宗文件以便证实索赔要求。) G.allows for 考虑到(如:In calculating profit, retailers must allow for breakage and spoilage. 计算利润时,零售商们必须考虑到破碎和损坏情况。) H.associated with I.subjected to J.comes to