【专四完形】2018英语专业四级完型填空练习及答案(二)
发布于 3年前 作者 一只绿色的🍋 1530 次浏览 来自 其他

Culture is the sum total of all the traditions, customs, beliefs, and ways of life of a given group of human beings.In this (36), every group has a culture, however savage, undeveloped, or uncivilized it may seem to us.   To the professional anthropologist (人类学家),there is no intrinsic(37)of one culture over another,just as to the professional linguist there is no intrinsic hierarchy(等级制度) among languages.   People once thought of the languages of backward groups as (38) and undeveloped forms of speech,consisting largely of grunts and groans. While it is possible that language in general began as a series of  grunts and groans, it is a fact established by the study of “backward” languages that no spoken tongue answers that description today. Most languages of uncivilized groups are, by our most severe standards, extremely complex, delicate, and ingenious pieces of machinery for the(39)of ideas. They fall behind our Western languages not in their sound patterns or(40 )structures, which usually are fully adequate for all language needs, but only in their vocabularies, which41the objects and activities known to their speakers. Even in this department, however,two things are to be noted: 1. All languages seem to(42)the machinery for vocabulary expansion, either by putting together words already in existence or by borrowing them from other languages and adapting them to their own system. 2. The objects and activities requiring names and distinctions in"backward" languages, while different from ours, are often surprisingly(43)and complicated.   This study of language, in turn, (44)a new light upon the claim of the anthropologists that all cultures are to be viewed(45), and without ideas of rank or hierarchy.   A. savage   B. superiority   C. conceive   D. transfer   E. identification   F.grammatical   G. reflect   H. reveals   I. numerous   J . independently   K. exclusive   L. casts   M. sense   N. confidentially   O. possess

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答案:   36.M   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空后面是一个完整的句子,初步判断介词短语inthis——在句中作状语。分析此短语可知,inthis后缺少一个单数名词。   语义判断:符合上述语法条件的单词有superiority、transfer、identification、sense四项,而这些名词中可以与inthis构成介词短语的只有sense,inthis sense意为“从这个意义上讲”,符合此处文意,故选M。   37.B   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空缺少一个单数名词,一则因为前面的谓语是系动词is,二则因为前面的形容词no是用来修饰名词的。   语义判断:符合上述语法条件的单词有三个:superiority意为“优越性”,transfer意为“转移;转换”,identification意为“鉴别;身份证明”。本句的大意是“没有哪种文化在本质上比另一种优越”,因此,只有superiority符合文意。   38.A   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空缺少一个形容词,与并列的形容词undeveloped共同修饰后面的名词forms。   语义判断:符合上述语法条件的形容词有四个:savage意为“野蛮的”,9rammatical意为“语法的”,numerous意为“许多的”,exclusive意为“单独的”。把这四项代入原文后可知savage比较贴合文意。  39.D   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空位于介词短语forthe__________ofideas之中。分析此短语可知,该空缺少一个名词。   语义判断:符合上述语法条件的单词有transfer和identification两个,只有transfer与后面的0fideas构成的短语transfer ofideas(传递思想)符合这里的语义表达,故选D。   40.F   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空所处的位置是not…or…并列结构,intheir省略掉了,因此,此处缺少一个与其前面的sound形成并列关系的名词或形容词,来修饰后面的structures。   语义判断:结合前面38题的“语义判断”,可知只有形容词grammatical(i吾法的)符合这里的语义表达,修饰后面的structures,表示“语法结构”,故选F。   41.G   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空所处的句子是一个which引导的非限制性定语从句,修饰前面的名词vocabularies,该空应填入一个复数的谓语动词。   语义判断:符合上述语法条件的单词有conceive(构想)、reflect(反映)和possess(拥有)三个。结合此处文意“反映这些说话者所知物体及活动的词汇”,可知reflect为正确答案。   42.O   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空缺少一个动词原形,构成seemtodo sth.这一常用表达。   语义判断:符合上述语法条件的单词有conceive和possess两个。结合语境,本句的大意是“所有语言都拥有拓展词汇的机制”。因此possess为正确答案。   43.I   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空缺少一个形容词作表语,和complicated并列。   语义判断:结合前面38题和40题的“语义判断”,并结合此处文意“多得出奇”,可知应填入numerous。故选I。   44.L   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空缺少一个动词,且应为第三人称单数形式,因为前面的主语是this study。   语义判断:符合上述语法条件的单词有casts(投射;铸造)和reveals(揭示)两个。结合语境,本句的大意是“对于语言的研究反过来让人们对人类学家的断言有了新的认识”,因此,只有casts符合。cast anewlight on/upon意为“使人们对……有新的认识”。   45.J   语法判断:分析句子结构可知,该空前是一个完整的主系表结构的句子,判断该空应填入一个副词来修饰前面的动词view。   语义判断:符合上述语法条件的单词有independently和confidentially两个。结合语境,本句的大意是“所有的文化都该被独立看待”,可知independently为正确答案,故选J。

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