【语法】非谓语动词语法精讲(上)
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一、考点聚焦 1、非谓语动词的句法功能 image.png 2、动词不定式复心中应注意的几个问题 (1)不定式作表语与“be + to do sth.”的异同。不定式作表语说明主语的内容或性质。 His job is to guard.(说明内容) be + to do sth.(表示按计划要做的事) (2)带不定式作宾语的词语。 下列词语常不定式作宾语:afford、promise、refuse、expect、hope、learn、offer、wish、want、fail、plan、agree、forget、like、prefer、decide、manage、try、arrange、determine、desire等。 下列动词后可接疑问词+不定式:teach、decide、wonder、show、learn、forget、ask、find、out、advise、discuss等。 (3)如何理解和使用不定式作宾补。 ①动词see、watch、notice、hear、listen to、observe、feel、taste、smell、make、let、have等的宾补用动词原形,变被动时要加to,此时的不定式就是主语补足语。 ②常用带不定式作宾补的几种情况: 主语 + ask / require / tell / order / force / get / want / like + sb.to do sth. ③主语 + think / judge / suppose / believe / consider /imagine/ consider / feel + sb. + to be/ to have done ④主语 + call on / upon / depend on / wait for / ask for + sb.+ to do sth. (4)不定式作定语的特殊用法。 ①下列词语后常接不定式作定语:chance、wish、right、courage、need、promise、time、opportunity、way、the first、the second、the last、the only等。 ②不定式作定语和所修饰的名词在逻辑上有主谓关系。 There is no one to look after her. ③不定式与被修饰的名词在逻辑上有动宾关系。 She is now looking for a room to live in. (5)不定式作状语的用法。 不定式作状语,修饰动词,在句中表示行为目的、结果、原因。only to do表示出人意料的结果。 We hurried to the classroom only to find none there . in order(not)to,so as(not)to用来引导目的状语,enough,too, so… as to do, such + 名词… as to do作结果状语,如:The girl was so kind as to help the old man off the bus. I’m not such a fool as to believe that. (6)不定式的完成时的特殊用法。 ①表示不定式中谓语动词发生的动作先于主句的谓语动词发出的动作。 The novel was said to have been published. I regret to have been with you for so many years. seem、appear、be said、be supposed、be believed、be thought、be known、be reported等动词常用于上面句型。 此外,glad、happy、satisfied、sorry、surprised、disappointed后也接完成时,但要注意与一般时的区别。 I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a minute.对不起,请稍等。(说话时还未等) I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.对不起,让你久等了。(说话时已等了很久) ②不定式的完成时还可表示“过去本想做某事但未做”的虚拟语气。(A)should like to / would like to / would love to + 不定式的完成时。(B)was / were to + 不定式的完成时,表示该做某事或想做但未实现。(C)expect / hope / mean / promise / suppose / think / want/ wish + 不定式完成时,表示过去未曾实现的愿望。 (7)不定式的省略。
①同一结构并列由and或or连接。 I want to finish my homework and go home. I’m really puzzled what to think or say. 特例:To be or not to be,this is a question. He is better to laugh than to cry.(表示对比) ②不定式作表语,其前面的主语从句中含有do时,后面的to省略。 What he did was lose the game. ③句中含有动词do时,but、except、besides、such as等后面to可省略。即“前有do,后省to”。 Don’t do anything silly, such as marry him. ④主句含有不定式,后面有rather than, rather than后省to。 ⑤Why not、had better、would rather、can’t but等词后省to。如: He could not but walk home.


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