【语法】大学英语四级考试语法知识详解(3)
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代词作主语时的一致 一、each, either, neither和由some, any, no, every构成的复合代词,都作单数看待. Each of us has something to say. Is everybody ready? Somebody is using the phone. Neither of us has gone through regular training. Has either of them told you?

二、some, few, both, many 等作复数 some 可后接复数,也可接单数,表示某一.

三、none作复数看待时较多,但也有时作单数看待,主要看说话人脑中联系想到的是复数还是单数概念, 但none 在代表不可数的东西时总是看作单数: None of the books are easy enough for us None of us seem to have thought of it. None (= not a single one) of us has got a camera. None (= nobody) has felt it more keenly than she did. None of this worries me. all 和most 可后接复数,也可接不可数名词 (all of the…, most of the …), 动词用单数.

四、由and 或 both… and 连接名词词组时, 后用复数; 由not only…but (also), either…or, neither…nor或 or 连接的并列主语, 谓语通常和最邻近的主语一致 Not only the switches but also the old writing has been changed. My sister or my brother is likely to be at home. Either you or Mr Yang is to do the work. Neither my wife nor I myself am able to persuade my daughter to change her mind.

五、如果一个句子是由there 或here引导, 而主语又不止一个, 谓语通常也和最邻近的那个主语一致。 There was carved in the board a dragon and a phoenix. Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper for you. people, police, cattle, poultry (家禽), militia (民兵) 等通常都用作复数. Cattle are grazing on the pasture. The police are looking for him.

六、有些集体名词有时作单数看待, 有时作复数看待, 主要根据意思来决定. His family isn’t very large. His family are all music lovers. The committee meets twice a month. The committee are divided in opinion. The audience was enormous. The audience were greatly moved at the words.

七、有些名词单复数同形, 可根据意思决定谓语动词的数: This new series is beginning next month. These new series are beginning next month. This species is now extinct. These species are now extinct.

八、表示时间, 重量, 长度, 价值等的名词, 尽管仍是复数形式, 如果作整体看待, 动词也可用单数形式 (当然用复数动词也是可以的): Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations. One hundred li was covered in a single night.

九、书名, 国家名用单数: Tales from Shakespeare is a book by Charles Lamb. 学科名, 如mathematics, economics用单数.

十、many a 或more than one 所修饰的词作主语时, 谓语动词多用单数形式: Many a person has had that kind of experience. More than one person has involved in the case.

十一、a number of 后接复数, the number of后接单数: A number of books have been published on the subject. The number of books published on the subject is simply amazing.

十二、one of those 后用单数. 在“one of + 复数名词 +关系分句”结构中,关系分句中谓语动词的单复数形式在一般情况下有两形式,一是根据先行词采用复数形式: Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful. 当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式: He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment. Joan is one of those people who go out of their way to be helpful. 当one 之前友the only 等限定词和修饰语时,关系分句谓语动词根据one 而定,即采用单数形式: He is the only one of those boys who is willing to take on another assignment.


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