【语法】高考英语语法讲解及练习:九大状语从句
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状语从句在主从复合句中修饰主句中的动词、形容词或副词等,按意义可以分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等状语从句。 一.时间状语从句。 通常由从属连词when, whenever, as, while, before, after, as soon as, till, until, since, once (一旦), hardly……when…, no sooner…….than…; 等引导。例如: The cyclist started just as the lights changed to green. Whenever we met with difficulties , they cam to help us. He didn’t leave his office until he had finished the day’s work. 应注意的问题 1.在时间状语从句中,通常要用动词的一般现在时态表示一般将来时态,用一般过去时态表示过去将来时态。但when 引导一般疑问句或名词性从句时不受上述语法规则的限制,因此,应该加以区分。例如: When China will enter WTO depends on the bilateral (双边的)joint efforts. Once you understand the rules of the game, you’ll enjoy it. 2.when , while, as 的不同用法。一般说来,当主、从句的动作是同时发生的事,三者可以换用。when既可以引导一个持续动作,也可以引导一个短暂动作,可用于主句和从句动作同时发生或从句动作先于主句动作;while 引导的动作必须是持续性的,强调主句和从句的动作同时发生,往往侧重主句和从句动作的对比;as 用于引导“在某行为的继续中发生某事”的“继续之行为”,所以多与过去进行时连用,翻译成“一边……一边……”或者表示动作的变化,翻译成“随着……”。 例如: I hope you’ll think of my words as/when/while you drive on the busy roads. When he realized it, the chance had been lost. When he came home, I was cooking dinner. I was fat when I was a child. He took a bath while I was preparing dinner. As I was walking down the street, an American asked me for the directions to the nearest station. He sang songs as he was taking a bath. As he gets older he gets more optimistic. 另外还必须注意 when和while 的特殊用法。when 可以表示“就在这时,突然”之意;而while 则可以表示对比的含义,常可译作“而”。例如: She thought I was talking about her daughter, ____, in fact, I was talking about my daughter. A. whom B. where C. which D. while 答案:D. 本句的意思是“她认为我在谈论她女儿,然而,实际上,我在谈论我女儿。” 再如: I was about to go to bed when the phone rang a second time. 我正准备去睡觉,就在这时电话铃又响了。 3.since 和before 的用法区别。两者都可用于 “It + be + since/ before-从句”的句型,区别在于 since 表示“自从…… 以来”,所在主、从句的谓语动词的时态关系是:It is/has been some time since sb did something. 而before 的含义则是“(过了多久)才……”,主、从句的时态关系是:It was/ had been some time before sb did sth。表示过去和将来时,两者相应的句型分别是:It was some time since sb had done something. 和It will be some time before sb does something. 例如: It was / had been years before I came back from abroad. It will be five years before we meet again. 4.一些表示时间的名词词组如: the first time, the second time, last time, the moment, the minute,the year, every time, each time , next time, 或副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可以引导时间状语从句。例如: I’ll tell you about it the moment you come. I recognized her the minute I saw her. I’m going to see him next time he comes to Shanghai. He left Europe the year World War II broke out. I got in touch with him immediately I received his letter. My sister came directly( = as soon as ) she got my message. 5.till 和until till 和until 意义相同,多数情况下可以换用,但用以强调,句首多用until; 在强调结构或与not 连用时多用until. 例如: Nothing can be done till/until the boss returns. We waited till/until they came back. Until we know the facts, we can’t do anything about it. Not until midnight did the noise of the street stop. 6.hardly……when和no sooner……than相当于as soon as 之意,也可引导时间状语从句。从句谓语动词用一般过去时,主句谓语动词用过去完成时。hardly 及no sooner 置于句首时,语气较强,主句的谓语要部分倒装。例如: We had hardly begun when we were told to stop. = Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop. The spy had no sooner returned home than he was told to go to another country. = No sooner had the spy returned home than he was told to go to another country.

二.地点状语从句。 地点状语从句由 where和wherever 引导,在主句前、后都可。where 表示特指,wherever 则表示泛指。但不少学生易将其和定语从句混淆,再者有的同学对地点状语从句不太注意,所以往往做错。例如: You should make it a rule to leave things ___ you can find them again. A.when B.where C.then D.there 答案:B. 注意它引导的不是定语从句。 After living in Paris for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child.(NMET 96) A.which B. where C. that D. when 答案:B. 这是一个由where 引导的定语从句,修饰先行词the small town.。再如: Where there is a will, there’s a way.

三.原因状语从句。 1.原因状语从句多由because, since, as 引导。because 引导的从句一般放在句末,表示直接的原因,语气最强,回答why提出的问题,重点在从句;since 引导的从句一般放在句首,表已知的原因,全句重在交代结果,比because 语气弱,常译作“既然”; as 引导的从句放在句首或句末,表示比较明显的原因,说明因果关系,语气较弱,重点在主句,译作“由于”。例如: _____ you have seen both fighters,_____ will win ? A.Since; do you think who B.As; who you think C.When; whoever D.Since; who do you think 答案:D. since 表示“既然”,所传达的信息是显而易见的。再如: As all the seats are full, he had to stand waiting. —“Why aren’t you coming with us to the concert ?” —“Because I have got a bad headache.” 此外,for 也可表示原因,但它是并列连词,引出并列分句,表示间接原因,用来补充说明内容,或据此而作出某种推断。例如: She must have wept, for there are tear trails on her cheeks. 2.now that也可引导原因状语从句,意思是“既然”,与since 同义,但更突出事实本身。

四.目的状语从句。 通常由so that, in order that, so, in case“以防、以免”等连词引导。例如: He took the medicine on time so that he might get well again. The teacher must speak clearly so that his students can/may understand well. She has bought the book in order that she can follow the TV lessons. 1.目的状语从句中的谓语常含有may/might, can/could, should , will/would等情态动词,通常主句在前,从句在后,主句与从句之间没有逗号。 2.in order that 引导的目的状语从句和so that 引导的状语从句可以换用,但in order that多用于正式文体中,而so 可用于口语或非正式文体中。例如: We’ll sit nearer the front so (that) we can hear better.

  1. in case 在非正式文体中,常引导目的状语从句,表示“以防、以免”等含义。例如: He left early in case he should miss the train. Take your raincoat in case it rains/ should rain.

五.结果状语从句。 通常由连词so that, so…that, such… that等引导。例如: He had overslept, so that he was late for work. He was so angry that he left the room without saying a word. He made such an excellent speech that everyone admired him. 1.so…that和such…that 引导的结果状语从句都表示主句的动作或状态达到一定的程度而引起的结果。 so 是副词,用来修饰形容词、副词、分词或其它结构,such 是形容词,用来修饰名词或名词短语。例如: There were so many people in the room that we couldn’t get in. So badly was he injured that he had to go to the hospital. (so短语位于句首时,主句须倒装) The book is so written that it gives a quite wrong idea of facts. He told us such a funny story that we all laughed. such修饰单数可数名词且名词前有形容词时,可用so替换such, 冠词与形容词交换位置,构成“so+ adj. +a(an) +名词”。上面的句子可以写成: He told us so funny a story that we all laughed. 又如:This is such a beautiful chair that I’m thinking of buying it. (= This is so beautiful a chair that I’m thinking of buying it.) 2.如何区别so that 引导的目的状语从句和结果状语从句? (1).根据上下文及句子所表达的意思判断。 (2).根据句子的结构来判断。从句之前有逗号的常是结果状语从句;从句前有情态动词的多半是目的状语从句。例如: She hurried , so that she caught the bus.(结果) She hurried so that she might catch the bus.(目的) I went to the lecture early, so that I got a good seat.(结果) I’m going to the lecture early so that I may get a good seat.( 目的) 状语从句在主从复合句中修饰主句中的动词、形容词或副词等,按意义可以分为时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等状语从句。

六.让步状语从句。 1.由however, whatever, whenever, whoever等引导,相当于no matter how/what/when/who 等。例如: We’ll have to finish the job,_____. A. long it takes however B. it takes however long C. long however it takes D. however long it takes 答案: D. however 是副词性引导词,必须直接位于所修饰的形容词long之前,并放在句首引导状语从句。 应该注意:however, whatever, whenever, wherever 等还可以引导名词性从句,而no matter how, no matter what, no matter when, no matter where等只能引导状语从句。例如: Whatever I said couldn’t cause his interest in the topic. 2.由though, although, as, even though/if 等引导让步状语从句,不能与 but 连用,但可于yet连用。 (1).由as引导的让步状语从句,必须倒装表语形容词、名词(前面不用冠词)或者副词状语或者动词原形,though 引导的让步状语从句可以倒装,也可以不倒装,而although引导的不能倒装。例如: He didn’t light the fire though/although it was cold. Although he is very old, (yet) he still jogs every day. Rich as/though he is(=Although he is rich), I don’t envy him. Difficult that task was, they managed to finish it in time. Child as he is, he knows a lot. Much as I love it, I’ll not buy it. Try as they may, they won’t succeed. (2).even if, even though 表示“即使,纵然”,有退一步设想的意味,多用于书面语中。 例如: I’ll do it, even if it takes me all the afternoon. Even if he did say so, we can not be sure that he was telling the truth. (3).whether(…or)引导让步状语从句,提供两个或两个以上供选择的条件。注意此时的whether不能换成if. 例如: Whether he drives or (whether he) takes the train, he’ll be there on time.

七.条件状语从句 条件状语从句用if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that, provided, providing, now that, in that 等引导。除了应注意这些词的语义差别之外,还需注意,在条件状语从句中不能用将来时,只能用一般现在时表示一般将来时。例如: If China becomes strong and powerful, we’ll never bully other countries. As long as we don’t lose heart, we’ll turn our dreams into realities. He won’t believe anything unless he sees it with his own eyes. I will lend you the money on condition that you pay it back in one month. 有时if 条件句中也用will, 但此时用来表示主语的意愿。例如: If you will come to work in our city, I’ll try my best to meet your demands.(如果你愿意来我市工作,我将尽力满足你的要求。)

八.方式状语从句 1.方式状语从句用 as, just as, as if, as though 引导。 2.关于方式状语从句值得注意两点: (1).as 表示行为方式; (2).在打比方与事实相反或不可能实现时,as if /though 引导的从句用虚拟语气。但当句子谓语为过去时态时,特别是当句子谓语为look, seem, taste, smell等感官动词时,从句谓语动词不用虚拟语气。例如: I have changed the plan as you suggested. When at Rome do as the Romans do.(入乡随俗) I have loved you as if you were my own son. It looks as if it is going to rain.    九.比较状语从句 比较状语从句常由than, as…as , not so/as…as, the more…, the more …等引导。例如: He didn’t do as much as he had promised. I know you as well as any member of your family. Now we can produce much more steel than Japan. The longer you stay with him, the better you will know him.


状语从句的复习重点及中考热点透视 状语从句不仅是初中英语学习的重点,而且也是每年中考必考的内容之一。从笔者研读历年全国各地中考英语试题对状语从句的考查内容来看,命题主要集中在引导状语从句的连词、状语从句的时态等方面;从九大状语从句来看,同学们应将复习重点放在时间状语从句、条件状语从句、结果状语从句和比较状语从句这四种上。 一、对时间状语从句的考查 1.要点: 1)引导时间状语从句的连词有:while, when,as,as soon as,until,not...until,before, after,since,etc.要掌握每个连词的含义及其用法,还有它们之间的一些区别。 2)when,while,as的区别: ①三者均可表示“当……的时候”,如果主句表示的是短暂的动作,而从句表示的是一段时间,三者可通用。如: I met Kang Li as/when/while I was walking along the street.当我沿街散步时碰见了康丽。 ②as和when都可与终止性动词连用, while只能与延续性动词连用。如: It was snowing when we got to the airport.当我们到达机场时,天正下着雪。(不能用 while) ③as强调主句与从句表示的动作同时发生;while强调主句表示的动作持续于while所指的整个时间内;when可指主、从句所述动作同时或先后发生。如: He sang as he went along.他边走边唱。 Please write while I read.我读的时候,请写下来。 When he reached home,he had a little rest.回到家后,他休息了一会儿。 3)until和till在肯定句中表示“直到……为止”,主句要用延续性动词;在否定句中,表示“直到……才”,主句常用终止性动词,这时till和until可用before替换。如: I waited till/until he arrived.我一直等到他到来。 We won’t start until/till/before Bob comes.鲍勃到来之前,我们不会动身。 4)since从句中常用过去时,主句用一般现在时或现在完成时;如果主句是一般将来时,情态动词加动词原形或祈使句时,时间状语从句用一般现在时。如: Where have you been since I saw you last?上次我和你见面之后,你到哪里去了? I’ll phone you as soon as I arrive in Tonghua.我一到通化就给你打电话。 2.考例: 1)我一到美国就给你打电话。(北京市海淀区) I’ll ring you up ______ soon ______ I get to America. 2)昨天直到雨停了,孩子们才离开学校。(同上) The children ______ leave school ______ the rain stopped yesterday. 3)It ______ ten years since they ______ to France.( A.as;covered B.was;have moved C.is;have moved D.is;moved 4)He ______ wait until the rain ______ . A.won’t;will stop B.won’t;stop C.will;stops D.will;will stop

二、对条件状语从句的考查 1.要点:引导条件状语从句的连词有if(如果)、unless(除非)等,unless在意义上相当于if...not。条件状语从句也像时间状语从句一样,如果主句用将来时,从句要用现在时代替将来时。如: You will fail unless you study hard.(=You will fail if you don’t study hard.)除非你努力学习,否则你会失败。 2.考例: 1)He will go to the Great Wall if it ______ tomorrow. A.won’t rain B.doesn’t rain C.don’t rain D.isn’t raining 2) ______ you eat old food,you may be ill. A.Before B.Why C.If D.Which

三、对比较状语从句的考查 1.要点:引导比较状语从句的连词有as...as,than。 1)表示甲与乙在某一方面相同时,用“as+原级+as”句型;表示甲在某一方面不如乙时,用“not as /so +原级+as”句型。如: Dalian is as beautiful as Shenzhen.大连和深圳一样的美。 I don’t run as/so fast as Kang Li.我不如康丽跑得快。 2)表示甲超过或不及乙时,用“比较级+从句”(从句中常省略意义与主句相同的部分)。如: He runs faster than you(do).他跑得比你快。 Today is less cold than yesterday.今天没有昨天冷。 2.考例: 1)Jack runs as ______ as Tom. A.fast B.faster C.fastest D.much faster 2)30,000dollars is a large amount of money,but it’s ______ than we need. A.for more B.very much C.far less D.very little

四、对结果状语从句的考查 1.要点:引导结果状语从句的连词有so...that(如此……以致于),such...that(如此……以致于)等。常用句型: so+形容词/副词+that从句 such a/an +形容词+单数可数名词+ that从句 such+形容词+复数可数名词/不可数名词+that从句 so+形容词+a/an+单数可数名词+that从句 He spoke so fast that I couldn’t follow him.他讲得太快,我跟不上。 He told us such funny stories that we all laughed. 他给我们讲了那么多有趣的故事,我们全都哈哈大笑。 2.考例: 1)这山太高,我们很难到达山顶。 This mountain is ______ ______ that we can ______ ______ the top. 2)Miss Gao asked a question,but it was ______ that nobody could answer it. A.very difficult B.too difficult C.difficult enough D.so difficult    五、对其它状语从句的考查 还有五种状语从句:地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、方式状语从句、让步状语从句。 1.要点: 1)掌握常用的引导词: ①引导地点状语从句的有:where(在哪里),wherever(无论何地),etc.如: Where there is a will,there is a way.有志者,事竞成。 Wherever you go,I go too.无论你去哪里,我都去。 ②引导原因状语从句的有because,as, since(因为),etc。because常回答why引导的疑问句,该从句一般位于主句后;since比as正式,两者不回答why引导的问句,而且其从句一般放在句首。如: —Why can’t I go?为什么我不能去? —Because you’re too young.因为你年纪太小了。 As(Since)you are not feeling well,you’d better stay at home. 既然你不太舒服,还是留在家里的好。 ③引导目的状语从句的有so that(以便)等。如: I packed him a little food so that he wouldn’t be hungry. 我给他包了一点食物,让他不致挨饿。 ④引导方式状语从句的有as(按照)等。如: I will do it as you tell me.我将照你说的做。 ⑤引导让步状语从句的有though/although(虽然),even though(尽管),whoever/ no matter who(无论谁),however/no matter how(无论怎样),whatever/no matter what(无论什么)等。如: Though it’s hard work,I enjoy it.尽管这工作很辛苦,我还是很喜欢。 No matter how hard the work was,he never gave it up.不管工作多么艰难,他都从不放弃。 2)because不能与并列连词so,though /although不能与but同时在句中使用。如: She was late for school because she missed the bus. She missed the bus,so she was late for school. It’s not cheap,but it’s very good. Though it’s not cheap,it’s very good. 2.考例: 1)I can’t understand this passage _____ there are no new words in it. A.if B.because C.though D.and 2)“Why did Li Lei use a pencil?”“ _____ his pen was broken.” A.Because B.When D.If

六、对状语从句和宾语从句、简单句、并列句的混合考查 【考点1】区分when,if引导宾语从句和状语从句的不同:when引导时间状语从句意为“当……时候”,引导宾语从句意为“什么时候”;if引导条件状语从句意为“如果”,引导宾语从句意为“是否”。如: 1.—Mike wants to know if _____ a picnic tomorrow. —Yes.But if it _____ ,we’ll visit the museum instead. A.you have;will rain B.you will have;will rain C.you will have;rains D.will you have;rains 2.—Do you know when he _____ back tomorrow?   —Sorry,I don’t.When he _____ back, I’ll tell you. A.comes;comes B.comes;will come C.will come;comes D.will come;will come 【考点2】状语从句和宾语从句、状语从句和简单句、并列句的同义转换。如: 1.A:He is too young to go to school. B:He is _____ young _____ he can’t go to school. 2.A:Tom is the tallest in his class. B:Tom is _____ _____ any other student in his class. 3.A:The box is so light _____ that the boy can carry it. B:The box is light for the boy to carry. 4.A:Put on your coat,or you’ll catch a cold. B: _____ you _____ put on your coat, you’ll catch a cold. Key: 状语从句的复习重点及中考热点透视 一、2.1)as;as 2)didn’t;until/till/before 3)D 4)C 二、2.1)B2)C 三、2.1)A2)C 四、2.1)so high;not reach 2)D 五、2.1)C 2)A 六、【考点1】1.C 2.C【考点2】1.so;that 2.taller than 3.enough 4.If;don’t 、2.1)C 2)A


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