【语法】初中英语知识点总结之宾语从句
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宾语从句 考察的三个要点:语序,时态,关联词。 1.定义:用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。 2.构成:关联词+简单句。 3.宾语从句的语序一定是陈述句语序。(who 作主语的从句本身就是陈述句语序). 4.宾语从句在复合句中作主句的宾语,连接宾语从句的连词有that(that在口语中常省略)。 whether,if,和连接代词what, which, who, whom及连接副词when, where, how, why。 He knew(that) he should study hard. 他知道他应该努力学习。 Can you tell me which class you are in? 您能告诉我,您在哪一班吗? He asked me if he could come in, 他问我他是否能进来。 5.引导宾语从句的关联词有三类: (1)从属连词that.如:一般那情况下可以省略。 He told us that he felt ill. I know he has returned. 注: that在引导宾语从句时也并不是任何情况下都可以省略。在以下情况下,that不能省略。 1)Everybody could see what happened and that Tom was frightened. (and连接两个宾语从句,that宾语从句放在and的后面时,that不能省略。) 2)I know nothing about him except that he is from the south. (that引导的宾语从句作介词宾语时,that不能省略。) 3)That he ever said such a thing I simply don’t believe.(that从句位于句首时,that不可省略。) 我简直不相信他曾说过这样的话。 (2)从属连词if/whether.如: I doubt whether he will succeed. I don’t know if you can help me. (3)连接代词who,whom,whose,what,which,whoever,whatever,whichever 连接副词 where,when,how,why. Who or what he was,Martin never learned. I wonder what he’s writing to me about. I’ll tell you why I asked you to come. 注意 1)如果宾语从句后还有宾语补足语,则用it作形式宾语,而将宾语从句后置。 We thought it strange that Xiao Wang did not come yesterday. He has made it clear that he will not give in. 2)某些形容词或过去分词后常接宾语从句,这类形容词或过去分词有sure,glad,certain,pleased,happy,afraid,surprised,satisfied等,连词that可省略。 I am not sure what I ought to do. I’m afraid you don’t understand what I said. I’m surprised that I didn’t see all that before. Mother was very pleased her daughter had passed the exams. 6.连词whether (…or not)或if引导的宾语从句 if和whether引导的宾语从句可以互换使用,但whether常和or not连用,if一般不与or not连用。如: I wonder whether it is true or not.我不知它是真是假。 用if引导宾语从句如果会引起歧义,应避免使用if而用wheter.试比较: Please let me know if you want to go. Please let me know whether you want to go. if从句可理解为宾语从句,意为“请告诉我你是否想去”;此句又可理解为条件状语从句意为“如果你想去的话,请告诉我一声”。 7.宾语从句的否定转移。在think,believe,suppose,expect等动词后的宾语从句,有时谓语尽管是否定意思,却不用否定形式,而将think等动词变为否定形式。如: I don’t think you are right. I don’t believe they have finished their work yet. I don’t suppose he cares,does he? 我想他不在意,是吗? 8.宾语从句的时态变化规律: (主句)一般现在时 (从句)可根据需要用任何时态。 (主句)一般过去时 (从句)过去的某种时态,例如:一般过去,过去进行,过去完成,过去将来等 注意:说到自然现象和普遍真理时,用一般现在时 The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun. 9.宾语从句应注意的问题 1)时态的一致(主句的时态与从句的时态一致) a.宾语从句中如果主句是现在的时态(包括一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时),从句的时态可根据实际情况而定。 I know he lives here.我知道他住在这儿。 I know he lived here ten years ago. 我知道他十年前住在这儿。 I have heard that he will come. 我已经听说他要来了。 b.宾语从句中如果主句是过去的时态(包括一般过去时、过去进行时),那么从句的时态一定要用过去的时态(包括一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时、过去完成时)。 I know who lives here.我知道谁住在这儿。 I know who lived here 我知道谁住过这儿。 Everyone he asks us if everyone is here. He asked us if everyone was here. 他问我们是否所有的人都出席了。 He has said that he has seen it. 他说过他已经看了。 He said that he had seen it. 2)语序的变化 a.陈述句变为宾语从句时,语序不变。 陈述句:He is an honest man. 他是一个诚实的人。 宾语从句:I said he was an honest man. (连词that可省) 我说他是一个诚实的人。 陈述句:We’ll Win. 我们会赢。 宾语从句:We believe we’ll win. 我们相信我们会赢。 b.一般疑问句变为宾语从句时语序要变为陈述句语序,用whether,if连接。 一般疑问句:Does he study hard? 他学习认真吗? 宾语从句:I wonder if(whether)he studies hard. 我不知道他是否认真学习。 一般疑问句:Will they win?他们会赢吗? 宾语从句:I asked if(whether) they would win. 我问他们是否会赢。 c.特殊疑问句变为宾语从句时语序要变为陈述句语序,用连接代词或副词(即保留原来的疑问词)。 特殊疑问句:Who is he? 他是谁? 宾语从句:Do you know who he is? 你知道他是谁吗? 特殊疑问句:What does he want? 他要什么? 宾语从句:I don’t know what he wants. 我不知道他要什么。 注意 Who went there?(特殊疑问句) 谁去那里呢? I wonder whowent there.(宾语从句) 我不知道谁去那里。 因为是对主语提问,所以特殊疑问句语序不变。变为宾语从句时,语序依然不变。 特殊疑问句:When did he leave? 他何时离开的? 宾语从句:I know when he left. 我知道他是什么时候离开的。 特殊疑问句:Where will he arrive? 他将会到哪里呢? 宾语从句:He asked me where he would arrive. 他问我他将会到哪里。 宾语从句:He asked me where he would arrive. 他问我他将会到哪里。


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