【语法】名词性从句(二)
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Ⅳ.名词性从句的特殊用法: (一)引导名词性从句只用whether不用if的情况:

  1. 引导主语从句置于句首时: e.g. Whether he can finish the work on time is not clear.
  2. 引导表语从句时: e.g. The problem is whether the meeting will be held.
  3. 引导同位语从句时: e.g. I have no idea whether he is willing to help us.
  4. 引导宾语从句前置时: e.g. Whether they will join in the Winter Camp I don’t care.
  5. 作介词宾语时: e.g. We aren’t interested in whether he will agree with us or not.
  6. 作动词discuss的宾语时: e.g. We are now discussing whether we should group these three companies.
  7. 其后接动词不定式时: e.g. Can you tell me whether to go or to stay?
  8. 与or not直接连用时,用whether,即whether or not,如果分开时,两者都可以,即whether/ if… or not。 e.g. I don’t care whether or not he has a holiday. =I don’t care whether/ if he has a holiday or not.

(二)同位语从句与定语从句的区别:

  1. 同位语从句既“说明、修饰”先行词,又“等同”于先行词。定语从句“修饰、限制”先行词,由“关系词”替代先行词,在从句中充当成分。 e.g. We are delighted at the news that we are going to spend our summer vacation in Dalian.  (同位语从句) Neither of us showed any interest in the news that John told us yesterday. (定语从句)
  2. that在从句中的作用 同位语从句中that为连接词,只起连接作用,在从句中不作成分,一般也不能省略;定语从句中的that为关系代词,在从句中充当句子成分,可作主语、宾语和表语,作宾语时常可省略。 e.g. The news (that) he told me surprised me. (定语从句) The news that he gave in surprised me. (同位语从句)
  3. 其他引导词的使用 引导同位语从句的词除连接词that外,还可用whether,连接代词who,what及连接副词when, where, how, why等;引导定语从句的词除that外,还有关系代词who, whom, whose, which, as以及关系副词when, where, why。

(三)wh­ever和“no matter+wh­”: wh­ever既可引导名词性从句,又可引导让步状语从句,而no matter wh­只能引导让步状语从句。 e.g. Whatever/ No matter what I said,he wouldn’t listen to me.  (让步状语从句) He would believe whatever/ anything that I said.  (宾语从句) 考点归纳: 名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句和表语从句。考查要点主要是连接代词和副词的正确使用,主语、谓语的语序,双重连接词以及特殊句型的使用等。其考点主要包括:

  1. 名词性从句的连接词。如:有词义的连接代词who, whose, whom, what, which; 连接副词when, where, why, how; 从属连词that, whether, if, as if; 无词义的that在从句中不担任成分,有时可省略。
  2. 名词性从句的语序和时态。
  3. it作形式主语、形式宾语的情况。  如: It+be+形容词+that从句, It+be+过去分词+that从句, It+be+名词+that从句, It+不及物动词(appear, happen等)+that从句
  4. 名词性从句中的虚拟语气。如: It is (was)+essential (important, natural…)+that…; It is (was) suggested (demanded, wished, desired…) that…等。
  5. what引导名词性从句时的语义功能和语法功能。如:what=the thing that/ anything that…;what=the place that…;what=the time that…;what=the person that…等。
  6. whoever, whatever, whichever引导名词性从句时的语义功能和语法功能。 重点考查连接词that, what的用法; 特殊疑问词引导的名词性从句; wh-ever引导的名词性从句。

Ⅴ.名词性从句的热点预测: (一)主语从句:

  1. 主要考点:
  1. that引导主语从句时, 常用it作形式主语, 常见的句型: ①It+ be+形容词+ that从句 ②It+ be+名词 (短语)+ that从句 ③It+ be+过去分词(said/told/reported/decided等)+ that从句 ④It+ 特殊动词 (seems/ appears/ happens/ matters)+ that从句
  2. what与that在引导主语从句时的区别: what引导主语从句时在从句中充当句子成分, 如主语、宾语、表语, 而that引导从句, 不充当成分。 e.g. What you said yesterday is right. (what引导主语从句, 作said的宾语) That English is important is an undoubted fact. (that引导主语从句, 不作任何成分, 但不可省略)
  3. 主语从句若含有“是否”意义, 其引导词只能用whether, 不能用if。 e.g. Whether he will be able to come tomorrow remains a question.
  1. 突破技巧:
  1. 掌握形式主语的句式及变化,根据句意选取合适连接词, 除that在句子中没有意义, 但不能省略外, 其他连接词均在句中有意义。
  2. what, that, which, whether连接主语从句的区别。

(二)宾语从句:

  1. 主要考点:
  1. 动词find, feel, think, consider, take (认为), make, believe, guess, suppose, assume等后面有宾语补足语时, 且宾语是从句时, 需用it作形式宾语而将that引导的宾语从句后置。
  2. 宾语从句的语序为陈述语序; 主句谓语动词用一般现在时, 从句谓语动词可以用各种时态; 主句谓语动词用一般过去时, 从句需用过去的相应时态, 但从句若表示客观真理、规律, 用一般现在时。 e.g. He said that he had been to the space station.
  3. 由whether或if引导的宾语从句, 要保持陈述句语序。此外, whether与if在作“是否”讲时, 一般可以换用, 但在下列情况下一般只能用whether, 不用if。 ①引导的从句作介词宾语时。 e.g. Everything depends on whether we have enough money. ②从句中有or或whether or not连用时。 e.g. I wonder whether or not he will come. Tell me whether or not I should invite Nick. ③后接动词不定式时。 e.g. Can you tell me whether to go or to stay?
  1. 突破技巧:
  1. 把握句意, 选取合适的连接词、时态、语序;
  2. 注意whether与if的互换和区别。

(三)表语从句:

  1. 考查内容:
  1. 表语从句常跟在这些系动词后, 如be, look, remain, seem等。 e.g. That is just what I want.
  2. 除常用的连接代词、副词外, as if/ though, because, why等也可以引导宾语从句。 e.g. It looks as if it’s going to rain.
  3. 引导表语从句的that不能省略; if不能用于引导表语从句。 e.g. The reason is that he got up late.
  1. 突破技巧:
  1. 理解句意, 把握语境, 扣准连接词在句中的含义;
  2. 掌握系动词后的表语从句辨析that, because, if, whether。

(四)同位语从句:

  1. 考查内容:
  1. 同位语从句中的名词: 在复合句中, 同位语从句说明其前面名词的具体内容, 同位语从句通常由that引导(that不能省略)。可用于同位语从句的名词有advice, demand, doubt, fact, hope, idea, information, message, news, order, problem, promise, question, request, suggestion, truth, wish, word等。 e.g. The news that the Shenzhou-Ⅹspaceship set off successfully is exciting. I have no idea when he will come back home. The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill.
  2. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别: 在限制性定语从句中, 关系代词that充当主语或宾语, 有实际意义, 作宾语时, 可省略。同位语从句中的that是连词, 不充当句子成分, 没有任何意义, 但不可省略。 e.g. The news (that) we heard on the radio was not true. (定语从句) The news that our football team won the match was encouraging. (同位语从句)
  1. 突破技巧:
  1. 熟记同位语从句的常用名词;
  2. 分析句子成分, 防止句式变化;
  3. 采取“意义法”区别同位语从句与定语从句。

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