【语法】过去完成时
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过去完成时 (1)常用过去完成时的几种情况: ①by, by the end, by the time, until, before, since后接表示过去某一时刻的短语或从句。 By the end of last year, we had produced 20,000 cars. The train had left before we reached the station. ②表示未曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用had hoped/ planned/ meant/ intended/ thought/ wanted/ expected等或用上述动词过去式接不定式完成式表示,即had hoped/ planned/ meant/ intended/ thought/ wanted/ expected to have done。 ③“时间名词+before”在句子中作状语,谓语动词用过去完成时;“时间名词+ago”在句子中状语,谓语动词用一般过去式。 He said his first teacher had died at least 10 years before. Xiao Hua left school 3 years ago. ④表示“一……就……”的几个句型: Hardly/ No sooner/ Scarcely had +主语+过去分词+when/ than/ before+一般过去时。 We had no sooner been seated than the bus started. = No sooner had we been seated than the bus started. (2)在before或after引导的时间状语从句中可用一般过去时代替过去完成时。 After he (had) left the room, the boss came in. We arrived home before it snowed.


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