【语法】英语过去完成时的标志词及例题解析
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过去完成时的标志词: (1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,也可以说过去的时间关于过去的动作。即“过去的过去”。可以用by,before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。 (2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for,since构成的时间状语连用。 (3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。 (4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。 (5)过去完成时常常用在told,said,knew,heard,thought等动词后的宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。 (6)状语从句:在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在前,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 注意:如果两个动作紧接着发生,则常常不用过去完成时,特别是在包含before和after的复合句中,因为这时从句的动作和主句的动作发生的先后顺序已经非常明确,这时可以用一般过去时代替过去完成时。 (7)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan, intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。 (8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second, etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。

过去完成时-语法判定

  1. 由时间状语来判定 一般说来,各种时态都有特定的时间状语。与过去完成时连用的时间状语有: ( 1 ) by + 过去的时间点。如:I had finished reading the novel by nine o’clock last night. ( 2 ) by the end of + 过去的时间点。 如: We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. ( 3 ) before + 过去的时间点。 如:They had planted six hundred trees before last Wednesday.
  2. 由“过去的过去”来判定。 过去完成时表示“过去的过去”,是指过去某一动作之前已经发生或完成的动作,即动作有先后关系,动作在前的用过去完成时,在后的用一般过去时。这种用法常出现在: ( 1 )宾语从句中 当宾语从句的主句为一般过去时,且从句的动作先于主句的动作时,从句要用过去完成时。 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。 如:She said that she had seen the film before. ( 2 )状语从句中 在时间、条件、原因、方式等状语从句中,主、从句的动作发生有先后关系,动作在前的,要用过去完成时,动作在后的要用一般过去时。 如:After he had finished his homework, he went to bed. 注意:before, after 引导的时间状语从句中,由于 before 和 after 本身已表达了动作的先后关系,若主、从句表示的动作紧密相连,则主、从句都用一般过去时。 如: After he closed the door, he left the classroom. (3)表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…" We had hoped that you would come, but you didn’t.
  3. 根据上、下文来判定。 I met Wang Tao in the street yesterday. We hadn’t seen each other since he went to Beijing.

典型例题 (1) —Do you know our town at all? —No, this is the first time I ___ here. A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming 答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B。 (2) —Have you ____ been to our town before? —No, it’s the first time I ___ here. A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come 答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。 注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。 (错)I have received his letter for a month. (对)I haven’t received his letter for almost a month.

过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 He said that he had learned some English before. By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. 典型例题 The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office. A. had written, left B,were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left 答案D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时。句中when表示的是时间的一点,表示在"同学们正忙于……"这一背景下,when所引导的动作发生。因此前一句应用过去进行时。 注意: had no … when 还没等…… 就…… had no sooner… than 刚…… 就…… He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.


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