【阅读】题源阅读:为什么女人比男人挣得少?
发布于 3年前 作者 活在当下 1131 次浏览 来自 考研

What’s Really Behind Why Women Earn Less Than Men? 到底为什么女人比男人挣得少?

Once it was because they weren’t as well educated. What’s holding them back now? 在过去这是因为她们没能像男人一样接受良好教育。现在又是因为什么呢?

Though headway has been made in bringing women’s wages more in line with men’s in the past several decades, that convergence seems to have stalled in more recent years. To help determine why, Francine D. Blau and Lawrence M. Kahn, the authors of a new study from the National Bureau of Economic Research parse data on wages and occupations from 1980 to 2010. They find that as more women attended and graduated college and headed into the working world, education and professional experience levels stopped playing a significant role in the the difference between men and women’s wages. Whatever remains of the discrepancy can’t be explained by women not having basic skills and credentials. So what does explain it?

尽管在过去几十年,男女收入差距有所减小,但近些年,差距弥合似乎止步不前。为了找出原因,美国国家经济研究局的弗朗辛·D·布劳(Francine D. Blau)和劳伦斯·M·卡恩(Lawrence M.Kahn)开展了一项新研究。研究通过对1980年到2010年间收入与职业的数据进行分析,发现随着更多女性接受高等教育、大学毕业后踏入职场,教育水平和专业经验已不再是两性工资差异的主因。现存的工资差异不能用女性基本技术差和资历不够来解释。那该用什么来解释呢?

The largest factor in the persistent wage gap is the dearth of women in specific jobs and industries, the researchers found. That means that narrowing the wage gap further requires making high-paying, male-dominated industries like STEM fields and tech companies more enticing and welcoming to women. And even before that, encouraging women and girls to take advantage of opportunities to explore and learn about fields like coding and science that remain male-dominated at both the professional and college level. This could help bring up overall wage averages, though it wouldn’t wholly address the gaps that remain between men and women’s salaries even within high-paying industries.

研究者发现,某些特定行业和岗位缺少女性是近些年两性工资出现差异的最大原因。这意味着,想要进一步缩小工资差异,需要在男性主导的高薪产业如科学、技术、工程和数学等领域以及技术性公司对女性敞开大门。甚至在这之前就应该鼓励各年龄段女性去探索和学习那些在专业水平和学术水平仍由男性主导的领域,诸如编程和科学。尽管这样做无法完全解决男女工资差异(甚至是在高薪产业内部),但可以从总体上提高工资的平均水平。

The study also points to … wait for it … culture, which continues to favor men’s participation in the workforce and women’s participation on the home front. “Current research continues to find evidence of a motherhood penalty for women and of a marriage premium for men,” the report finds. “The greater tendency of men to determine the geographic location of the family continues to be a factor even among highly educated couples.” (The researchers assign minimal importance to theories suggesting that psychological factors such as the notion that men are bigger risk takers, or that women are more averse to tense negotiations have all that much to do with the skill gap.)

等等,研究还指出男主外女主内的传统文化同样对工资有影响。“当前研究不断验证:生育对女性职业发展有不利影响,而婚姻则对男性职业发展大有裨益。”报告如是写道,“即便在高学历夫妻中,家庭选址也越来越由男方决定,这也是男女收入差异的一个因素。”(之前有理论称,男女技能差距与某些心理因素密切相关,比如男性更愿意冒风险,女性则不愿面对紧张的谈判场面。而研究者则认为这种理论站不住脚。)

“Culture” is kind of a squishy concept. How, precisely, does culture push women’s wages down (or men’s wages up)? They find that one of the more significant contributing factor to pay disparity is due to the fact that women are more likely to spend time away from the workforce and are more likely to work truncated schedules as they try to balance both professional and personal priorities, such as caring for children or parents. Progress in pay parity has been slower among women in highly skilled professions than those in professions that don’t require a college or graduate degree. The paper notes that this may be because women in high-paying, demanding jobs, like doctors or lawyers, are more harshly penalized for time spent away from the office, and clients. Specifically the penalties for time out of the office are high among those with MBAs and JDs.

“文化”是一个模糊的概念。但是,文化究竟是如何降低女性工资(或者如何提高男性工资)的呢?研究人员发现,男女工资出现差异较为显著的一个原因是女性更易缩短工作时间,把时间花在工作之外的地方,因为她们要平衡工作任务与个人事务——比如照顾孩子和老人。高技术岗位女性比不需要大学学位就能上岗的女性,在缩小男女收入差距方面进展更为缓慢。报告称,这可能由于医生、律师等薪水高、要求也高的职业对将时间花在办公室和客户之外的女性雇员的惩罚更严厉,对工商管理硕士和法学博士来说尤其如此。

But it’s also true that these women likely have the option to take more time in the first place. Women with more elite, high-paying jobs typically have better options either via benefits or savings, or family assistance, that can allow them to take time away from the workforce, even if it results in a reduction of overall income.

但是这些女性似乎从一开始就可以选择把时间花在哪里,这也是事实。有着高级、高薪工作的女性通常通过奖金、存款或家庭援助而更有选择权,她们可以把时间花在工作以外的地方而无需担心收入减少。

The researchers note that discrimination, too, can play a role. When it comes to hiring and promotions, concerns that women will (or should) spend more time away from the office, or will somehow underperform can create a labor market where it’s difficult for women to achieve to the most advanced and highly paid positions.

研究者表示工资差异也与性别歧视有关。在人事招聘与晋升中,考虑到女性将(或应该)在工作以外花更多时间,或者达不到预期的工作表现,将会导致女性在劳动市场难以升职和获得高薪。

生词本 Para. 1 make headway:to make progress, especially when this is slow or difficult e.g. We are making little headway with the negotiations.
我们的谈判没有取得什么进展。 e.g. The boat was unable to make much headway against the tide. 船逆着潮水没法开快。 convergence : if ideas, aims, policies converge, they become very similar or the same stall:to stop something from happening until a later date; to stop making progress e.g. Discussions once again stalled.
讨论再次停顿下来。 parse:resolve (a sentence) into its component parts and describe their syntactic roles 对(句子)作句法分析 discrepancy:an illogical or surprising lack of compatibility between two or more facts e.g. There’s a discrepancy between your account and his.
你的描述和他的大相径庭。 credentials:the qualities, training or experience that make you sustainable to do sth e.g. He has all the credentials for this job.
他做这项工作完全够格。 e.g. She will first have to establish her leadership credentials.
她得首先证明她有担任领导的资格。

Para.2 dearth:a lack of sth; the fact there not being enough of sth e.g. There was a dearth of reliable information on the subject.
关于这个课题缺乏可靠材料。 STEM:science, technology, engineering, and math enticing:something that is enticing is so attractive and interesting that you want to have it or know more about it e.g. The offer was too enticing to refuse.
这提议太有诱惑力,让人难以拒绝。

Para. 3 premium:a prize, bonus, or award given as an inducement to purchase products, enter competitions initiated by business interests, etc. e.g. The busy shopper puts a premium on (= appreciate and will pay more for) finding everything in one big store. 忙碌的顾客更加喜欢在一个大一点的店铺买到所有东西。 assign sth to sth:to say that sth has a particular value or function, or happens at a particular time or place e.g. Assign a different color to each different type of information.
给每类信息分别确定一种颜色。 e.g. The painting cannot be assigned an exact date.
这幅画的年代确定不了。 averse to sth:not liking sth or wanting to do sth; opposed to doing sth e.g. He was averse to any change.
他反对任何改变。

Para. 4 squishy:soft and easy to press e.g. That said,’mental fitness’ is still a squishy concept.
这份研究报告说,“脑部保健”仍是一个模糊的概念。 truncate:to make something shorter, especially by cutting off the top or end e.g. My article was published in truncated form.
我的文章以节录的形式发表了。 JD:Juris Doctor (法学博士)

Para. 5 in the first place:used to talk about someone did or should have done at the start of a situation e.g. I wished I’d never got involved in the first place! 我希望我从一开始就没有参与进来! benefit:an advantage you get from a company in addition to the money that you earn


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