【语法】高考英语语法填空如何备考?
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在2016年新课标高考英语语法填空类题目中的考纲的要求如下: 在一篇200词左右的语言材料中留出10个空白,部分空白的后面给出单词的基本形式要求考生根据上下文填写空白处所需的内容(1个单词)或所提供单词的正确形式。

备考思路 语法填空题设空设空大致有如下特点: 无提示词一般考查:冠词、介词、连词、代词、助动词、固定搭配等 有提示词一般考查:谓语动词、非谓语动词、形容词、副词、名词等。 具体策略: (一)、给出动词基本形态,填写词性词形转化(转为名词、形容词),或填写谓语部分,或是填写非谓语动词; (二)、给出词语,词性的变化,如名词、动词、形容词、副词之间的转化,名词的复数形式,给出形容词,需要填写比较级、最高级,或词性词形转化,转化为副词,或是填写反义词(前缀); (三)、给出副词,填写比较级、最高级,或是填写反义词; (四)、不给词语填写限定词的时候,很可能是填冠词、人称代词主格宾格形式,物主代词、反身代词的单复数形式。形容词性物主代词或some、any、other、another等限定词;有的名词前有限定词,比如:序数词,形容词的最高级等,其前用定冠词。

高考英语语法填空不给提示词范例: 例: 【2015课标II】The adobe dwellings built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even ______ most modern of architects and engineers. 答案与分析:the。这里名词由形容词的最高级修饰,因此用定冠词。 例: 【2015广东】He owned ______ farm, which looked almost abandoned. 答案与分析:a。名词farm前应该有冠词,因为在文章中第一次出现,所以用不定冠词。 例: 【2010广东】After the student left, the teacher let ______ student taste the water. 答案与分析:another。上文谈到一个学生让老师品尝他从沙漠里带了来的泉水,当那个学生离开后,老师让另一个学生品尝这泉水的味道。根据语境这里填写限定词another。 例: 【2014广东】Last year, my brother and I went to Miami for a vacation. Some of my friends who had been there before said ______ was a wonderful holiday destination. 答案与分析:it。第二个句子中的宾语从句缺主语,这里it代替前文提到过的Miami。 例: 【2015课标I】For those who fly to Guilin, it’s only an hour away ______ car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city. 答案与分析:by。这里的car不作主语、表语或动词的宾语,可以看出其前面应该填写介词,这里的介词短语作状语。 例: 【2014课标II】There were many people waiting at the bus stop, ______ some of them looked very anxious and disappointed. 答案与分析:and。“There were many people waiting at the bus stop”是个完整的句子,“some of them looked very anxious and disappointed.”也是个完整的句子,两句之间是并列关系。 例: 【2012广东】( )he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong. 答案与分析:Although/Though。这里有两个句子,“______ he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back”和“he was wrong.”,且两个句子之间没有分号或句号,根据句意可知,第一个句子是让步状语从句。 例: 【2015课标II】As natural architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly ______ thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days. 答案与分析:how。因为“…the Pueblo Indians figured out”和“…the adobe walls needed to be…”是两套主谓关系,即两个句子,它们之间没有句号或分号,空格处必定是填连词;根据句意,确定填写连词how。 例: 【2014广东】I didn’t understand ______ this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation. 答案与分析:why。“I didn’t understand”和“this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation.”是两套主谓关系,即两个句子,它们之间没有句号或分号,空格处必定是填连词;根据句意,确定填写连词why。 例: 【2015课标I】I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River ______ are pictured by artists in so many Chinese paintings. 答案与分析:that/which。这里有两套主谓关系,“I’d skipped nearby Guilin…”和“are pictured…”,两句之间没有句号或分号,空格处必定是填连词或关系词;根据句子结构,第二个句子少主语,先行词是Guilin,根据定语从句中关系词的使用规则,这里填写that/which。 例: 【2013广东】His son looked surprised, “I can understand why I shouldn’t pay too much, Father, but if I can pay less, ( )not save a bit of money?” 答案与分析:why。上文谈到父亲让儿子去买盐,告诉儿子付钱的时候不可以多付。也不可以少付。儿子不解地问:“如果我能少付钱的话,为什么我不省点钱呢?” 例: 【2014课标II】Then the driver stood up and asked, “ _______anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop? ” 答案与分析:Did。根据本句中last stop可知,句子的时态应该是过去时态,因此一般疑问句的助动词是did。 总之,以上讲解了语法填空题的部分微技能,例题都来自于高考真题,具有代表性。无论试题如何变化,万变不离其宗,只要牢固掌握英语的语法和词汇知识,就一定能做好语法填空题中的纯空格填空题。 无提示词语练习 1.In the beginning, there was only ____ very small amount of unfairness in the world … 分析:空格处应为冠词a。 2.It is said that a short­tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960-1279) was very anxious to help ______ rice crop grow up quickly. 分析:故填形容词性物主代词his。 The new boy looked at the teacher ____ a few seconds … 分析:a few seconds前是空格,且a few seconds不作主语或表语,也不作动词的宾语。表示某个动词或状态延续了多久,用“for +时间段”。故此题应填介词for。 3… who should have the honour of receiving me ______ a guest in their house. 分析:因为a guest在句中不作主语、表语或动词的宾语,前面一定是填介词,使其成为该介词的宾语;又由句意可知,他们“把我当作客人”来接待,表示“当作”,用介词as。 4.Then he took ____ off, gave a big smile and said, “That’s cool.” 分析:代替前面的those glasses,作took off的宾语,用人称代词的宾格them。 5.I can send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and ______ gets there almost in a second. 分析:and连接前后两个句子,and后面的句子缺主语,应填名词或代词;结合前一分句,不难推知,“马上可到达那里”的是the message,替代the message用代词it。 6.( ) he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong. 分析:因为he thought … 与he was wrong是两个句子,且两者之间没有关联词,必定是填关联词;根据两句之间的逻辑关系,应填表示假设的If“如果”。 7.Nick’s guests, ( ) had heard their conversation, asked why they … 分析:who引导非限制性定语从句,先行词是前面整个句子。 高考英语语法填空有提示词范例: 例: 【2015课标I】I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that are pictured by artists in so many Chinese ______ (painting). 答案与分析:paintings。该词前面有限定词many,因此用复数形式。 例: 【2014课标I】While there are amazing stories of instant transformation, for most of us the ______ (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. 答案与分析:changes。该词后面的动词是复数形式,因此change用复数形式。 例: 【2015课标I】Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is ______ (clean) than ever. 答案与分析:cleaner。根据后面比较级的标志词than,这里应该使用比较级。 例: 【2015课标II】In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ______ (able) to “air condition” a house without using electric equipment. 答案与分析:ability。their后接名词。 例: 【2015课标II】As ______ (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly how thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days. 答案与分析:natural。名词前用形容词修饰。 例: 【2015课标II】Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat ______ (slow) during cool nights, thus warming the house. 答案与分析:slowly。这里需要副词修饰动词短语give out。 例. 【2014课标I】Just be ______ (patience). 答案与分析:patient。这里应该是形容词作表语。 例: 【2015课标II】This cycle ______ (go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and are thus always a timely offset(抵消) for the outside temperatures. 答案与分析:goes。根据句中的时间状语day after day和后面的句子中使用的时态,可以确定该动词用一般现在时态形式,主语是单数,因此动词用数三人称单数形式。 例: 【2015课标I】It was raining lightly when I ______ (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. 答案与分析:arrived。所给动词arrive前是代词I,这里应该是谓语动词,因为主句的时态是过去时态,因此这里用过去时态。 例: 【2015课标II】When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ______ (cool) the house during the hot day; at the same time, they warm up again for the night. 答案与分析:to cool。句子“the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ______ (cool) the house during the hot day”中的谓语动词have given up和are并列,所给动词前面没有其他连词,cool表示结果,因此用to cool。 例: 【2015课标I】Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it regularly arranges quick getaways here for people ______ (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong. 答案与分析:living。live与前面的people不能形成主谓关系,又因为live与people的关系是主动关系,因此用现在分词living作定语,修饰中心词people。 例: 【2015课标I】A study of travelers ______ (conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world. 答案与分析:conducted。因为这个句子里有谓语动词names,所给动词不是names的并列谓语,它与前面名词的关系是被动关系,因此用过去分词作定语。 例: 【2010广东】He spit it out, ______ (say) it was awful. 答案与分析:saying。在这里say前没有并列连词,因此可以推断不是并列谓语,是非谓语动词,又因为say与主语he的关系是主动关系,因此用现在分词。


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