【专四】专四语法考点汇总
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一、时态、语态 时态、语态需要掌握的要点: 1.表达将来时的形式: (1)在时间、条件、让步从句中,一般现在时代替将来时,但要注意区别从句的类型,如: I’ll tell him when you will ring again. 我告诉他你什么时候再来电话。(宾语从句) 比较:I’ll tell him when you ring again.你再打电话时我告诉他。(状语从句) (2)在make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般现在时代替将来时 2.完成时是时态测试的重点,注意与完成时连用的句型和时间状语: (1)by/between/up to/till +过去时间、since、by the time/when +表示过去发生情况的从句,主句用过去完成时。 (2)by +将来时间、by the time/ when +谓语动词是一般现在时的从句,主句用将来完成时。 (3)by now、since +过去时间、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用现在完成时, 但在it is +具体时间since/before这一句型中,主句更多的时候不用完成时。 It is four years since John left school. (4)在It is the +序数词/形容词最高级+that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用现在完成时。 (5)在no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。 3.完成进行时指动作在完成时的基础上还要继续下去。如: The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened. 时态、语态答题思路: (1)先根据选项的区别点确定考题要点为时态,然后回到题句中寻找给出的或暗示的时间状语,缩小选择范围,进而选出正确答案; (2)根据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系,确定句子是主动语态还是被动语态。

二、不定式 1.不定式做主语 (1)引导逻辑主语的介词:不定式的逻辑主语一般由介词for引导,但下列表示人的性格行为特征的形容词做表语时, 不定式的逻辑主语则由of引导: absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind, thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel, selfish, lazy, wicked, wrong (2)不定式做主语补足语: 掌握常用不定式做主语补足语的句型。注意不定式表示的动作发生的时间,并采用相应形式。如: be said / reported / thought / believed / known / supposed + to do sth. 2.不定式做宾语 掌握要求接不定式做宾语的动词: afford, arrange, attempt, claim, desire, determine, expect, fail, guarantee, endeavor, intend, pledge, pretend, resolve, request, swear, tend, venture 3.不定式做定语 (1)被修饰的名词前有序数词、形容词最高级或next, last, only, not a, the, very等限定词时,该名词用不定式做定语。 (2)如果其动词要求不定式做宾语,相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如: tendency to do→tend to do, decision to do→decide to do (3)如果其形容词形式要求接不定式做补语,相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如: ambition to do “干……的雄心”→be ambitious to do“有雄心干……” curiosity to do “对……的好奇心”→be curious to do“对……好奇” ability to do“做……的能力”→able to do“有能力做……” According to Darwin, random changes that enhance a species’ ability to survive are naturally selected and passed on to succeeding generation. (4)表示方式、原因、时间、机会、权利等名词用不定式做定语,这些名词包括: way, method, reason, time, place, chance, occasion, opportunity, evidence, power, right, movement, drive (运动),effort等。 (5)不定代词something, nothing, little, much, a lot习惯上用不定式做定语。 4.不定式做状语 不定式做状语主要表示目的、程度、结果、方式。 (1)in order to(do), so as to(do)结构引导目的状语,so as to不能置于句首。 (2)so…as to, such…as to, enough…to, too…to结构做程度状语。 (3)不定式做结果状语只能出现在句子的末尾,表示不愉快的结果,有时用only加强语气。 常见的不定式动词有find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce等。 (4)not/never too… to, too… not to, but/only too…to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表示肯定意义。如: I am only too pleased to hear from you further. 能再听到你的消息,我太高兴了。

三、动名词 1.必须接动名词做宾语的动词 牢记下列要求接动名词做宾语的动词: acknowledge, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, admit, confess, consider, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, favor, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, justify, mention, pardon, practice, postpone, recall,recollect,risk, resist, suggest, tolerate。 2.动名词做介词短语 考生尤其要识别下列短语中的to是介词,不是不定式符号: object to, resort to, react to, contribute to, look forward to, be accustomed to, be committed to, be exposed to, be subjected to, be devoted to, be dedicated to, be opposed to, be reconciled to, be contrary to, be (get) used to, come close to, get down to, give oneself up to, prefer…to, see to, set to, take to, in addition to, with regard to, with a view to, on the way to。

四、分词 分词起形容词和副词的作用,在句中做定语或状语。在概念上应清楚: ● 现在分词表示主动,表示动作在进行。 ● 过去分词表示被动,表示动作结束了的状态或结果。 1.分词做定语,弄清现在分词与过去分词的区别 分词短语做定语相当于省略了的定语从句,考生应掌握: (1)现在分词与被修饰词之间具有主动意义。如: It’s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-increasing world. (相当于the changes which take place…) (2)过去分词与被修饰词之间具有被动意义。如: Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port announced half a day before the defenders actually surrendered.
(相当于…recapture of the port which had been announced…) (3)下列不及物动词也以过去分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义: deceased, departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, grown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-travelled, newly arrived, recently come。如: an escaped prisoner一个逃犯a retired worker一位退休工人 a faded curtain一个褪了色的窗帘a newly arrived student一个新来的学生 2.分词做状语,注意区分分词的一般式与完成式 (1)表示时间,多置于句首,注意如果分词表示的动作的时间先于谓语动词,要用完成式。如: Having completed one task, we started on another one. (complete先于start之前发生) (2)表示原因,置于句首句尾均可,根据情况有时要用完成式,有时用一般式。 (3)表示伴随、方式,置于句尾,用分词的一般式。 (4)表示结果,置于句尾,用分词的一般式。 (5)表示补充说明(同位),置于句尾,用分词的一般式。 3.分词的独立主格结构 分词的逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则分词短语要有自己的逻辑主语,称为分词独立主格结构。分词独立主格结构只是句子的一个部分。如: All flights having been canceled because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train. Darkness setting in, the young couple lingered on merrymaking.

五、非谓语动词的其他考点 1.接不定式或动名词做宾语都可以,但在意思上有区别的动词的用法 mean to do想要(做某事) propose to do 打算(做某事) mean doing意味(做某事) propose doing建议(做某事) forget to do忘记(要做的事) remember to do记得(要做某事) forget doing忘记(已做的事) remember doing记得(已做过的事) go on to do继而(做另一件事) stop to do停下来去做另一件事 go on doing继续(做原来的事) stop doing停止正在做的事 regret to do(对将要做的事)遗憾 regret doing(对已做过的事)后悔 2.不定式的习惯用法 句型:cannot help but do cannot but do cannot choose but do can do nothing but do have no choice/alternative but to do 上述句型的意思接近,即“不得不做”、“不禁做”、“不由自主地做”、“不能不做”、“只能做”。如: Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction. When I consider how talented he is as a painter, I cannot help but believe that the public will appreciate his gift. 3.动名词的习惯用法 句型:be busy/active doing sth. have difficulty/trouble/problem doing sth. It’s no good/use/picnic doing sth. have a good/great/wonderful time doing sth. spend/waste time doing sth. There is no point/sense/harm/ use doing sth. cannot help doing sth. There is no doing sth. I know it isn’t important but I can’t help thinking about it. Alice was having trouble controlling the children because there were so many of them. There is no use crying over spilt milk. 4.there be 非谓语动词的用法 (1)做宾语时取决于谓语动词的持续要求。如: The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exams.(expect要求接不定式做宾语) (2)做目的状语或程度状语时用for there to be,做其他状语用there being。如: For there to be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present.(for there to be…在句中做目的状语) It isn’t cold enough for there to be a frost tonight, so I can leave Jim’s car out quite safely. (for there to be…在句中做程度状语) There being no further questions, we’ll stop here today. (there being…做原因状语) (3)引导主语用for there to be。如:It is unusual for there to be no late comers today. (4)做除for外的介词宾语,用there being。如: He would always ignore the fact of there being such a contradiction in his inner thought.

六、虚拟语气 1.主从句谓语动词的时态 (1)掌握主从句谓语动词的规范搭配:

主句 从句 与现在事实相反 would/情态动词过去式+do were (不分人称)/did 与过去事实相反 would/情态动词过去式+have done had done 与将来事实相反 would/情态动词过去式+do should do / were to do 如:If the doctor had been available, the child could not have died. There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, should there be a sudden loud noise. (2)区分主从句表示的不同时间概念: 主从句谓语动词所指时间不同,这叫做错综时间条件句,动词形式应根据实际情况来调整。如: Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is. (主句与现在事实相反,从句与过去事实相反) Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now. (主句与现在事实相反,从句与过去事实相反) (3)识别事实和假设混合句: Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a make-up examination had you gone and explained that your parents were ill at the time. (句子前半部分为假设情况,而“父母病了”是事实) I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week. (前半部分为假设,后半部分是事实) 2.名词性从句的虚拟形式 名词性从句是指宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。从句的谓语动词需用(should+)动词原形表示虚拟。考生应熟悉: (1)下列动词做谓语时,that宾语从句中的动词用虚拟形式: desire, advise, recommend, command, direct, order, ask, demand, request, require insist, maintain, move, propose, prefer, urge, vote。如: In the past men generally preferred that their wives work in the home. I move that he be discharged for his serious mistake. (2)下列形容词和分词做表语或补语时,that主语从句中动词用虚拟形式: advisable, desirable, insistent, preferable, urgent, appropriate, compulsory, crucial, essential, imperative, important, necessary, obligatory, possible, probable, proper, vital, advised, arranged, commanded, demanded, desired, ordered, proposed, recommended, requested, required, suggested。如: The board deem it urgent that these files should be printed right away. It is essential that all these figures be checked twice. (3)下列名词接同位语从句或表语从句时,从句中动词用虚拟形式: insistence, preference, recommendation, suggestion, proposal, motion, desire, requirement, request, order, necessity, importance, regulation, rule, resolution, understanding。如: John Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference. They keep telling us it is of utmost importance that our representative be sent to the conference on schedule. 3.含蓄虚拟条件句的谓语动词形式 含蓄虚拟语气是指假设条件不通过if从句表达,而是暗含在其他结构中。考生应熟悉: (1)连词but, but that, or, or else;副词otherwise, unfortunately等表示转折假设。如: A safety analysis would have identified the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done. Victor obviously doesn’t know what’s happened; otherwise he wouldn’t have made such a stupid remark. (2)介词短语暗含假设条件,常用的有:without, but for, under more favorable conditions等。如: But for the English examination I would have gone to the concert last Sunday. (3)intended/meant/hoped/wished/planned或was/were +不定式完成式或had intended/meant/planned/hoped/wished +不定式一般式暗示虚拟语气。如:I intended to have called on you, but I was busy at that time. (4)情态动词完成式暗示虚拟语气。如:I should have called to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t. 4.常用虚拟形式的句型 (1)从句中动词用过去式或过去完成式表示虚拟的句型: would rather would as soon as though suppose… had rather would sooner as if supposing… If only… It is (high) time that…(从句中动词只用过去式) (2)If it were not for… (与现在事实相反) If it had not been for… (与过去事实相反) 相当于but for。如: If it had not been for his help (= but for his help), we would not have succeeded. (3)If only…谓语动词视情况选用适当的形式。如: If only the committee would approve the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible. (4)lest/for fear that/in case 从句谓语用(should+)动词原形。如: The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself. (5)whether…or…有时谓语用be的原形,引导让步虚拟从句,这种用法经常采用倒装结构。如: Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on. The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.

七、情态动词 注意情态动词完成式的用法有两方面的含义: 1.表示已经发生的情况 (1)must have +过去分词,表示对已发生情况的肯定推测,译为“(昨天)一定……”。 (2)can’t/couldn’t have +过去分词,表示对已发生情况的否定推测,译为“(昨天)一定没……”。 (3)may/might have +过去分词,表示对已发生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推测,或事实上根本没发生,译为“也许……”。

2.表示虚拟语气 (1)needn’t have+过去分词,表示做了不必做的事,译为“其实没必要……”。 (2)should /should not have +过去分词,表示应该做某事但实际上未做,或本不应该做但实际上做了, 译为“本(不)应该……”。 (3)ought to have+过去分词,表示动作按理该发生了,但实际上未发生,译为“该……”,与should的完成式含义类似。 (4)could have+过去分词,表示过去本来可以做但却未做,译为“完全可以……”。 (5)may/might have + 过去分词,表示过去可以做但实际未做,译为“(那样)也许会……”。

3.几个情态动词常考的句型 (1)may/might (just) as well“不妨,最好”,与had better相近。如: Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train. (2)cannot/can’t…too… “越……越好,怎么也不过分”。注意这个句型的变体cannot…over…。如: You cannot be too careful when you drive a car. The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be overemphasized. (3)usedn’t或didn’t use to为used to (do)的否定式。 (4)should 除了“应该”一层意思外,大纲还规定要掌握其“竟然”的意思。如: I didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that.

九、平行结构 1.注意比较结构中相比较的内容在语法形式上是否相同。如: It is better to die on one’s feet than to live on one’s knees. Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it. 2.其他具有并列或比较意义的短语。 (1)rather than, let alone 虽不是并列连词,但在结构上连接两个语法形式相同的成分。如: We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style rather than in a personal style. For the new country to survive, let alone for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required. (2)如果平行的两个成分在形式上是介词短语,而且介词相同,一般说来第二个介词不要省略。如: At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

十、代词 1.与所指代的名词在性、数、格上是否一致 如:Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect. 2.that的指代作用 that指代不可数名词和单数可数名词(如是复数,用those),后面通常跟有修饰语,如出现在比较结构中的that of。如:No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor. 3.one的指代作用 one指代不确指的单数可数名词,复数为ones。the one 指代确指的单数可数名词。

十一、主谓一致问题 1.主语与谓语之间有定语从句或其他结构修饰,所以距离较远,考生易误认主语。如: The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affects the quality of the products. 2.关系代词做主语的定语从句中,谓语的数要与先行词一致。 3.动名词短语、不定式短语、名词性从句做主语,谓语用单数。 4.主语带有(together/along)with, such as, as well as, accompanied by, including, rather than 等附加成分, 谓语的数不受附加成分的影响。 5.表示时间、距离、金额、重量、面积、体积、容积等度量的名词短语做主语时,谓语用单数。 6.某些固定结构中谓语的数: a great many + 可数名词复数 谓语用复数 many a + 可数名词单数 谓语用单数 a number of +可数名词复数 谓语用复数 the number of +可数名词复数 谓语用单数 the majority of +可数名词复数 谓语用复数 each/every +可数名词单数 谓语用单数 neither/either of +可数名词复数 谓语用单数 more than one +可数名词单数 谓语用单数 one and a half +可数名词复数 谓语用单数 the greater part of / a large proportion of / 50% of / one third of / plenty of / the rest of 谓语的数与of后面的名词一致

十二、倒装结构 1.下列否定词及含有否定意义的词组修饰状语时,若置于句首,句子的主谓要部分倒装 never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。 2.以only修饰状语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装 Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion. 3.以下列副词或短语开头的句子,句子的主谓要部分倒装 often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point,many a time。 4.以下列副词开头的句子,句子的主谓要全部倒装 (1)出于修辞需要,表示方向的副词:out, down, in, up, away, on。如: Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him. (2)出于习惯用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then。如: Now is your turn. There goes the bell. 5.让步从句的倒装 (1)as引导让步状语从句,必须采用倒装结构,但不是主谓倒装,而是将被强调的内容置于句首。 (2)出现在句型be+主语+其他, come what may中。 Come what may, I’ll be on your side. 6.比较从句的倒装 as, than引导的比较从句中,如果主语是名词短语且较长,经常采用倒装结构(不倒装也可以)。注意:这种结构主语一般为名词,如果是代词则不倒装。

十四、复合句——名词性从句 一个句子起名词的作用,在句中做主语、宾语/介词宾语、表语、同位语,那么这个句子就是名词性从句。 1.what/whatever的用法 考生应把握:what是关系代词,它起着引导从句并在从句中担当一个成分这两个作用。如: They lost their way in the forest, and what made matters worse was that night began to fall. (what既引导主语从句又在从句中做主语) Water will continue to be what it is today—next in importance to oxygen. (what既引导表语从句又在从句中做表语) 2.whoever和whomever的区别 whoever和whomever相当于anyone who,用主格与宾格取决于其在从句中做主语还是做宾语。如: They always give the vacant seats to whoever comes first.(whoever在从句中做主语) 3.有关同位语从句的问题 (1)引导词通常为that, 但有时因名词内容的需要,也可由whether及连接副词why, when, where, how引导。that不表示任何意义,其他词表示时间、地点、原因等。如: The problem, where I will have my college education, at home or abroad, remains untouched. (2)同位语从句有时与先行词隔开,注意识别。如: Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old. 4.whether与if在引导名词性从句时的区别 (1)主语从句只能用whether引导; (2)whether一般多用于宾语从句的肯定式,而if引导的从句可以有否定式; (3)whether or not可以连在一起用,而if or not则不能,or not只能放在句末; (4)whether可以引导介词宾语从句,if则不能; (5)宾语从句提至谓语前面时,只能用whether引导; (6)在question, ask后面一般只用whether,question的同位语从句也用whether引导; (7)后接不定式时,只能用whether。 5.动词believe, expect, fancy, imagine, suppose, think后的宾语从句如为否定式,一般将否定词转移到主句谓语上。

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