【阅读】考研英语阅读常见题型总结
发布于 5年前 作者 活在当下 1483 次浏览 来自 考研

考研英语一直是我们复习的重中之重,而阅读理解却是我们在复习时最难把握的,因此,只要掌握好了阅读理解的复习思路和做题方法,成功就在咫尺了。 我们把考研阅读的题目分成以下几种题型,分别是:例证题、指代题、词汇题、句子理解题、推理题和主旨题。

例证题

1、例证题的标记:当题干中出现example, case, illustrate, illustration, exemplify时。

2、返回原文,找出该例证所在的位置,既给该例子定位。

3、搜索该例证周围的区域,90%向上,10%向下,找出该例证支持的观点。例子周围具有概括抽象性的表达通常就是它的论点。

例如:【2007年阅读试题】Text 1

If you were to examine the birth certificates of every soccer player in 2006’s World Cup tournament, you would most likely find a noteworthy quirk: elite soccer players are more likely to have been born in the earlier months of the year than in the later months. If you then examined the European national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranks, you would find this strange phenomenon to be even more pronounced.

21. The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to .

[A] stress the importance of professional training

[B] spotlight the soccer superstars in the World Cup

[C] introduce the topic of what makes expert performance

[D] explain why some soccer teams play better than others

指代题

1、返回原文,找出出题的指代词。

2、向上搜索,找最近的名词、名词性短语或句子(先从最近点开始找,找不到再找次近的,一般答案不会离得太远)

3、将找到的词、词组或句子的意思代入替换该指代词,看其意思是否通顺。

例如:【2013年阅读试题】Text 2

In December 2010 America’s Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a “do not track” (DNT) option to internet browsers, so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed. Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Apple’s Safari both offer DNT; Google’s Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and the Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get cracking on responding to DNT requests.

27. “The industry” (Para.3) refers to .

[A] online advertisers

[B] e-commerce conductors

[C] digital information analysts

[D] internet browser developers

词汇题

“搜索代入”法

1、返回原文,找出该词汇出现的地方

2、确定该词汇的词性

3、从上下文(词汇的前后几句)中找到与所给词汇具有相同词性的词(如一下子找不到就再往上往下找),代入所给词汇在文章中的位置(将之替换)看语义是否合适。

4、找出选项中与代替词意思相同或相近的选相,即答案。

People in earlier eras were surrounded by reminders of misery. They worked until exhausted, lived with few protections and died young. In the West, before mass communication and literacy, the most powerful mass medium was the church, which reminded worshippers that their souls were in danger and that they would someday be meat for worms. Given all this,they did not exactly need their art to be a bummer too.

例如:【2006年阅读试题】Text 4

37. The word “bummer” (Para.5) most probably means something .

[A] religious

[B] unpleasant

[C] entertaining

[D] commercial

句子理解题

1、返回原文找到原句。

2、对原句进行语法和词义的精确分析(找主干),应该重点抓原句的字面含义。若该句的字面含义不能确定,则依据上下文进行判断。注意:局部含义是由整体决定的。

例如:【2011年阅读试题】Text 4

It’s no surprise that Jennifer Senior’s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, “I Love My Children, I Hate My Life,” is arousing much chatter—nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soul-crushingly hard, Senior writes that “the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight”.

36. Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring .

[A] temporary delight

[B] enjoyment in progress

[C] happiness in retrospect

[D] lasting reward

推理题

“最近原则”

1、标志:learn, infer, imply, inform

2、看是否可以通过题干返回原文或依据选项返回原文。一般要围绕文中的一两个重点进行推理。推理题无论通过题干能不能定位,我们都要把它固化到文章的一两点上。

3、推理题的最近答案原则:不推的要比推的好,推的近的要比推的远的好,直接推出的要比间接推的好。(原文的某句话变个说法)

例如:【2013年阅读试题】Text 1

Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment—including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line—Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can’t afford not to.

24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph?

[A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists.

[B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability.

[C] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing.

[D] People are more interested in unaffordable garments.

主旨题

“串线摘帽”

即在自然段少的时候串串线,串线法解不出来时,大帽子、小帽子摘一下。

1、主旨题的标志:mainly about, mainly discuss, the best title

2、串线法:抓首段和其余各段的第一句话,把其意思连接成一个整体。要注意总结性的提示词和转折词,特别要注意中心句。(主要针对自然段少的文章;针对自然段多的文章,主旨题最好联系中心句。找一个和中心句最贴近的)

例如:【2011年阅读试题】Text 3

The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional “paid” media—such as television commercials and print advertisements—still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create “earned” media by willingly promoting it to friends, and a company may leverage “owned” media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the process of making purchase decisions means that marketing’s impact stems from a broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media.

Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media, such marketers act as the initiator for users’ responses. But in some cases, one marketer’s owned media become another marketer’s paid media—for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. This trend, which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the site seem objective, gives companies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies’ marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned.

The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker,more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them.

If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company’s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg.

35. Which of the following is the text mainly about?

[A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.

[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media.

[C] Dominance of hijacked media.

[D] Popularity of owned media.

希望能够对阅读理解有一个全面的把握。


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