【语法】非谓语动词的时态和语态问题
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一、非谓语动词的时态问题不定式或动词的-ing形式(包括现在分词和动名词)的动作若发生在谓语动词的动作之前,用完成式,否则就用一般式。 I don’t know whether you happen ________. A. to be heard B. to be hearing C. to hear D. to have heard

【分析】答案选D。hear发生在谓语don’t know之前,用不定式的完成式。句意是:我不知道你是否已经听说过了,今年九月我要去美国学习。

The old man, ______ abroad for twenty years, is on the way back to his motherland. A. to work B. working C. to have worked D. having worked

【分析】答案选D。work发生在谓语(返回祖国)之前,用现在分词的完成式作状语,表示时间,相当于after he has worked abroad…不定式作状语不能表示时间。    “We can’t go out in this weather,” said Bob, ________ out of the window. A. looking B. to look C. looked D. having looking

【分析】答案选A。look out of the window与谓语动词said同时发生,用现在分词的一般式作状语,表示伴随情况。若表示不定式的动作与谓语动作同时发生,并强调正在进行的情景或持续性,可用进行式。如:若表示不定式的动作与谓语动作同时发生,并强调正在进行的情景或持续性,可用He seems to be reading a newspaper. 他好像在看报。

二、非谓语动词的语态问题当不定式或动词的-ing形式与其逻辑主语是主动关系,用主动式;是被动关系,用被动式。 Little Jim should love ________ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken B. to take C. being taken D. taking

【分析】答案选A。句子主语Little Jim与take是被动关系,“被带去看戏”发生在“想(should love=want)”后,所以用不定式的被动式作宾语。说明:①动词不定式用主动形式表被动含义的情况:在作表语或宾补的形容词后用状语时;作定语修饰have, there be, this / that / these / those be等后面的名词或代词时;作表语的to blame等。如:1. The text is difficult to learn. 这篇课文很难学。(to learn主动表被动)2. We found the text difficult to learn. 我们觉得这篇课文很难学。(to learn主动表被动)3. He was to blame for that. 他因此受到了责备。(作表语的to blame主动表被动)

I’m going to the supermarket this afternoon. Do you have anything ________ ? A. to be buying B. to buy C. for buying D. bought

【分析】答案选B。表示“有…要…”,常用不定式的主动形式表示被动含义。②need, want和require表示“需要表示”,主语通常是物时,后面除用不定式的被动式外,也可用-ing形式的主动形式表示被动。

There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars ________ road conditions need ________. (上海卷) A. that; to be improved B. which; to be improved C. where; improving D. when; improving

【分析】答案选A。need improving=need to be improved。that引导的从句与problem是同位语。


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