【托福】独立写作段落拓展 - 例证法
发布于 5年前 作者 来自外太空的鱼 832 次浏览 来自 其他

古语有言:“工欲善其事,必先利其器。”独立写作作为一种主观题型,了解ETS考官的小心思是备考的重要组成。换句话来说,独立写作评分标准就是指导写作的风向标。满分评分细则:usingclearly appropriate explanations, exemplification and/or details.由此可见,文章的详细论证,例证法是一个不二选择。

|何为例证法   例证法是托福独立写作主体段论述的重要手段之一。文中的例子可以是一个词、一个句子或者几个句子组成的意群。比如:   词例:Auniversity like Harvard is a prestigious one.   句例:Forexample, the failure of the Qing Dynasty of China proves that isolation fromthe outside world would be detrimental.   意群:Forinstance, Lionel Messi, my favorite football player, no one could believe thathe was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency. However, his persistence andintense love for football kept him going on without hesitation and nothingcould stop him from becoming an excellent player. Ultimately, the sportingdirector of Barcelona had been made aware of his talent and led him to asuperiorly shining life. Now he has received FIFA World Player of the Yearnomination in 2009 at the age of 21. This incident gives me a full understandingof the fact that how unbelievable results sports may bring to people.

|例证法的好处   我们都知道,纯粹的论述有时候读起来比较呆板,而且文章细节的展开对逻辑和相关词汇量的要求比较高。于是,相对感性的“例证法”就可以在此大放异彩。通常,在托福独立写作中所使用到的例证以意群为单位的居多。并且这些例证主要分为两种类型,一种是通例,一种是特例。特例主要来源于真实和具有重大历史影响力的案例,比如:   Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Society benefits more from great artists thanfrom those of political leaders.Use specific reasons and examples tosupport your answer.   First,political leaders play a decisive role in the development of economy. Morespecifically, national economy is closely relatedto policies formulated by political leaders. For instance, FranklinD Roosevelt, a dominant political leader, led the United States during a toughtime of worldwide economic depression and war. His program for relief, recoveryand reform, known asthe New Deal,ushered American in an era ofrelatively low unemployment rate and stable society, which was a catalyst for arapid development of industrial economy.   此外,同学们也可以采用相对比较容易的通例。这一类例子主要以个人背景知识和生活经验为来源,用起来也比较得心应手。   比如:Doyou agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to spend money ontraveling and vacation than to save money for the future.Use specific reasons and examples tosupport your answer.   Inaddition, the income for some people is so slender that they cannot afford themoney for traveling. Those who do not have high income even worried about theconsumption of house rent, food and clothing, so actually they havenot extramoney to travel.Myuncle is a case in point.He, who works in a factory, only hasa salary of 600RMB per month, and he does not have much money left after payingthe above-mentioned expenses of the family. Never has he spent money ontraveling or vacation because of the lack of money.   综上,托福作文的例子最好有多样性、具体性和趣味性。同一篇文章中尽量运用不同类型的例子论证文章的主题,尤其是美国主流文化中涉及的人物和事件。素材收集同学们可以多读一些英语原文,比如《经济学人》(The Economics)等。   此外,自身经很多也可以成为例子,但是要注意写得具体可信,即符合例子“具体化”的要求。


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