发布于 5年前 作者 来自外太空的鱼 1079 次浏览 来自 考研

2016年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题答案及解析(2) Text 3   “There is one and only one social responsibility of business” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel Prize-winning economist “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Friedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility(CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’s money, things may not be absolutely clear-act. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.   The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect may to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.   Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. A recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under American’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act(FCPA).It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations,they could be influenced only by the halo effect.   The study found that,among prosecuted firms,those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firm’s political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.   In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving by about20% result in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials.” says one researcher.   Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question at how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them a less costly punishment.   31.The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with   [A]uncertainty   [B]skepticism   [C]approval   [D]tolerance 【答案】[A]uncertainty   【解析】态度题。根据题干中的关键词Milton Friedman, CSR 可以定位到第一段开头处,米尔顿·弗里德曼认为:"企业有且只有一种责任,为增加利润而运用资源,开展活动"。紧接着文章转折并提出"things may not be absolutely clear-cut"。情况并不明确。由此推知,作者对此的态度是uncertainty。

32.According to Paragraph 2, CSR helps a company by   [A]guarding it against malpractices   [B]protecting it from consumers   [C]winning trust from consumers.   [D]raising the quality of its products 【答案】[D]raising the quality of its products   【解析】细节题。根据第二段,以及题干中的关键词CSR,公司花大笔资金在CSR上面,其结果就是"this could add value to their business in three ways", "以三种方式分别给公司带来价值"。紧接着文章分别阐述三种方式,得出正确答案为D。

33.The expression “more lenient”(line 2,Para.4)is closest in meaning to   [A]less controversial   [B]more lasting   [C]more effective   [D]less severe 【答案】[D]less severe   【解析】词义题。根据题干回文定位到第四段第一句。通过该段第二句的描述可以得知CSR和政治影响是对立的两个因素。而第二句冒号后面交代,参与政治活动较多的公司不会受到较低的罚款。这就意味着,反而具有全面的CSR项目的公司受到的罚款比较低。因此,结合选项可以推出第一句话中的more lenient penalties指less severe,即不那么严重的(宽大)的惩罚。因此正确答案为D。

34.When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company’s CSR record   [A]comes across as reliable evidence   [B]has an impact on their decision   [C]increases the chance of being penalized   [D]constitutes part of the investigation 【答案】[B]has an impact on their decision   【解析】细节题。根据题干中的prosecutors evaluate a case回文定位到第五段第二句。该句指出虽然检察官在评估一个案件时,应该基于其功绩,实际上还是受到了公司CSR记录的影响。故正确答案为选项B。

35.Which of the following is true of CSR according to the last paragraph?   [A] The necessary amount of companies spending on it is unknown   [B] Companies’ financial capacity for it has been overestimated   [C] Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked   [D]It has brought much benefit to the banking industry 【答案】[A] The necessary amount of companies spending on it is unknown   【解析】细节题。根据题干回文定位到最后一段。该段首句指出,研究者们承认他们的研究没有解决的问题是:针对CSR各大企业到底该支出多少费用。故正确答案为选项A。

Text 4   There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. “Sometime in the future,” the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.   Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper - printing presses, delivery trucks - isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online - only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print anyway. And though print ad sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining.   Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Jonah Peretti.   Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about doing it the right way. “Figuring out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense for them,” he said, “but if you discontinue it, you’re going have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”   Sometimes that’s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example of Netflix discontinuing its DVD-mailing service to focus on streaming. “It was seen as blunder,” he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti were in charge at the Times? “I wouldn’t pick a year to end print,” he said “I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”   The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. “So if you’re overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,” Peretti said. “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.” In other words, if you’re going to make a print product, make it for the people who are already obsessed with it. Which may be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs nearly $500 a year - more than twice as much as a digital - only subscription.   “It’s a really hard thing to do and it’s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn’t have a legacy business,” Peretti remarked. “But we’re going to have questions like that where we have things we’re doing that don’t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it’s better to be more aggressive that less aggressive.”   36.The New York Times is considering ending it’s print edition partly due to   [A] the increasing online and sales   [B] the pressure from its investors   [C] the complaints from its readers   [D] the high cost of operation 【答案】[D] the high cost of operation   【解析】从题干提取关键词ending和due to 定位到第二段主题句中的 incentive to ditch the print (放弃印刷的原因)。随后解释了infrastructure isn’t just expensive (设备不仅仅是昂贵)。此外,该段还对比对手电子图书:don’t have the same set of financial constraints(经济限制)。因此可以确定答案D。

37.Peretti suggests that in face of the present situation, The Times should   [A] make strategic adjustments   [B] end the print sedition for good   [C] seek new sources of leadership   [D] aim for efficient management 【答案】[A] make strategic adjustments   【解析】首先根据Peretti suggests定位到阐述Peretti观点的第四段第一句:Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about doing it the right way.可以确定答案A。

38.It can be inferred from paragraphs 5and 6 that a " legacy product"   [A] helps restore the glory of former times   [B] is meant for the most loyal customers   [C] will have the cost of printing reduced   [D] expands the popularity of the paper 【答案】[B] is meant for the most loyal customers   【解析】本题答案定位到第6段第1句"The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor"以及"make it for the people who are already obsessed with it"。

39.Peretti believes that in a changing world   [A] traditional luxuries can stay unaffected   [B] cautiousness facilitates problem-solving   [C] aggressiveness better meets challenges   [D] legacy businesses are becoming out dated 【答案】[C] aggressiveness better meets challenges   【解析】根据题干中的"in a changing world"定位到文章最后一段最后一句. 原文说当市场和世界形势发生变化时,我们所做的事情就毫无意义了。在这种情形下,"more aggressive(积极进取)is better", 和答案中的关键信息"aggressiveness better"相呼应。

40.which of the following would be the best title of the text?   [A] shift to online newspapers all at once   [B] Cherish the Newspapers still in Your Hand   [C] keep Your Newspapers Forever in Fashion   [D] Make Your print Newspapers a luxury Good 【答案】[D] Make Your print Newspapers a luxury Good   【解析】本文主要是讲述报纸行业为防止被淘汰的而需要做出的应对之策。根据文中第5段最后一句的"raise prices, and make it into more of a legacy product"以及第6段中"increase it at a higher rate each year…"可得知,应该把报纸变成一种更像文化遗产的一种产品,并且要不断提高报纸的价格,变成一种奢侈品。   【试题点评】今年四篇文章来自于卫报、经济学人等,整体难度,相对于去年而言,略微简单。第一篇文章的讲是法国时尚界要保护模特的身体健康,所以要严禁使用那些很瘦的模特。第二篇文章是讲英国的绿地,乡村的绿地要保护好。第三篇文章讲的是美国研究人员发现,一个公司如果注重社会责任的话,这个公司就算是在法律诉讼的时候,检查人员也会潜意识地为其说好话。第四篇文章讲的是要不要停止这个纽约时代报纸印刷,采取的相关政策方法是让报纸价格贵一点。在我们整体的考研阅读当中,所需要具备的一个最重要的能力就是如何去看到题目之后,定准了位,并且找到那个我们真正应该找到的位置,在四个选项当中去找意思的原文最匹配的选项。    Part B   Directions:   Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings. Mark your answers on the ANSER SHEET. (10 point)   [A] Create a new image of yourself   [B] Decide if the time is right   [C] Have confidence in yourself   [D]Understand the context   [E]Work with professionals   [F]Make it efficient   [G]Know your goals   No matter how formal or informal the work environment, the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in the first impressions. According to research from Princeton University , people assess your competence, trustworthiness, and likeability in just a tenth of a second, solely based on the way you look.   The difference between today’s workplace and the “dress for success” era is that the range of options is so much broader. Norms have evolved and fragmented. In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in other not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials, it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing.   So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what’s the best way to pull off one than enhances our goals? Here are some tips:   41.【答案】B   【解析】该段中出现了表示时间的词汇和短语:during transitions; in a period of , time。在不同的时间段,作者给出了不同的策略。浏览标题发现,只有选项B出现了表示时间的词汇。本段第二句中的good与小标题中的right也恰好对应,因此确定正确答案为B选项。   As an executive coach, I’ve seen image upgrades be particular helpful during transitions-when looking for a new job, stepping into a new or more public role, or changing work environments. If you’re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. If you’re not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals. Look for cues about how others perceive you. Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK   42.【答案】G   【解析】该段首句提到"弄清楚你希望达到的效果",然后以问句形式提出段落主题,接着分两个方面来阐述:目标不同,要求不同。本段第一句话中的"get clear"与小标题中的"know"属于同义表达,并且本段第三句话中the goal 与小标题中的goal完全对应,因此正确答案为G选项。   Get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more “SoHo.” (It’s OK to use characterizations like that )   43.【答案】D   【解析】该段第一句话提到"要像人类学家一样来考虑你的工作环境",接着给出了几个排比的问句,都是针对工作环境的具体细节的发问。最重要的是在结尾部分,作者总结评论道,"The better you …, the more control you …",意为"对文化背景理解得越好,对自己的影响力就有越好的控制"。很明显,这句话凸显了context的重要性,而且出现了关键词的复现understand和context。因此,答案选D选项。   Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What conveys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you understand the cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.   44.【答案】E   【解析】本段按照总分的形式安排,并且在首句给出两处关键词professionals 和 share with,即"支持专家的意见,并且与其分享个人的目标"。下文是举例论述,例如去找私人造型师而不是理发师等。紧接着下文就给出 "work with a professional photographer"让专业人士拍照片而不是自己的朋友或者是配偶。因此可以得出结论本段是围绕专业人士professionals 的重要性来展开的。故选择 Work with professionals.   Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like J. Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It’s not as expensive as you might think.   45.【答案】F   【解析】该段落主题句出现在转折之后,即"Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue.",其中it指代上一句中style upgrade。通过前后两句话对比指出目的是利用style upgrade作为机会来reduce decision fatigue(减少决定疲乏),从而来提高办事效率。后两句话作为论据进一步论证这一观点,因此答案选F选项。   【试题点评】新题型要求考生从整体上把握文章的逻辑结构和内容上的联系,理解句子之间、段落之间的关系,对诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征有较强的意识和熟练的把握,并具备运用语法知识分析理解长难句的能力。新题型有三种题型,不同的题型考查的重点不同,因此有不同的解题思路和技巧,需要考生全面把握,尤其是对于完形填句(段)题和排序题,是对语言能力和阅读理解能力的综合测试,因此在要求上远远高于小标题选择题和观点例证题,考生有必要对这类题型的答题思路多练习,以提高自己在这个部分的应试能力。   The point of a style upgrade isn’t to become more vain or to spend more time fussing over what to wear. Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. Pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to options. Buy all your clothes at once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time.

Part C   Directions:   Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)   Mental health is our birthright. (46) we don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy, it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend, a broken bone. Mental health can’t be learned, only reawakened. It is like immune system of the body, which under stress or through lack of nutrition or exercise can be weakened, but which never leaves us. When we don’t understand the value of mental health and we don’t know how to gain access to it, mental health will remain hidden from us. (47) Our mental health doesn’t go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.   Mental health is the seed that contains self-esteem -confidence in ourselves and an ability to trust in our common sense. It allows us to have perspective on our lives-the ability to not take ourselves too seriously, to laugh at ourselves, to see the bigger picture, and to see that things will work out. It’s a form of innate or unlearned optimism. (48) Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are. Mental health is the source of creativity for solving problems, resolving conflict, making our surroundings more beautiful, managing our home life, or coming up with a creative business idea or invention to make our lives easier. It gives us patience for ourselves. And toward others as well as patience while driving, catching a fish, working on our car, or raising a child. It allows us to see the beauty that surrounds us each moment in nature, in culture, in the flow of our daily lives.   (49)Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfecting ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions. It has been available even in the most mundane of life situations to show you right from wrong, good from bad, friend from foe. Mental health has commonly been called conscience, instinct, wisdom, common sense, or the inner voice, we think of it simply as a health and helpful flow of intelligent thought. (50) As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.    46.【参考译文】我们不必一定去学习如何做到心理健康,这种能力植根于我们自身,就像我们的身体知道如何愈合伤口,如何修复断骨。   【解析】分号连接两个句子:第一个句子主干为we don’t have to learn,how引导宾语从句作learn的宾语,其中how表示方式;第二个句子主干为it is built into us,其中代词it指代前句提及的mental health; in the same way表示方式,that引导定语从句,其中又嵌套了how引导的宾语从句,作know的宾语。   47.【参考译文】心理健康不会去往他方。如同乌云可能蔽日,心理健康可能会暂时隐藏于视线之外,但它完全可以在须臾之间复原如初。   【解析】分号连接两个句子:第一个句子为主谓结构的简单句;第二个句子为but连接的两个并列分句,表达转折关系,主干为it can be hidden, but it is capable of being restored,其中介词短语like the sun behind a cloud表示比喻。in an instant:立刻,立即。   48.【参考译文】心理健康使我们在他人陷入危难之时给予同情,痛苦不已时给予善意,无论对谁,都能给予无条件的爱。   【解析】本句主干为:mental health allows us to view others…,三个并列的介词短语with…表示伴随。其中分别嵌套了if引导的两个条件状语从句和no matter who引导的让步状语从句。   49.【参考译文】尽管心理健康是人们度过一生的一剂万能良药,但它又普通不已,因为当你需要做出艰难决定时,都可感受到它的存在。   【解析】句子主干是it is perfectly ordinary。it指代前文提及的mental health;although引导让步状语从句,其主干为mental health is the cure-all。as引导原因状语从句,其主干为you will see;that引导从句做see的宾语,其主干为it has been there to direct you。cure-all:合成名词,万灵药。   50.【参考译文】就像你会渐渐明白,深悉心理健康一直触手可得并且值得信任,使我们能放慢生活脚步,活在当下,幸福生活。   【解析】句子主干是knowing that…and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily。两个动名词结构knowing…并列作主句的主语,其中that引导的宾语从句作knowing的宾语。句首的as引导非限制性定语从句,修饰整个主句,翻译时可以处理为"就像…,正如…"。   【试题点评】翻译考查考生在准确理解的基础上,按照英语语法结构拆分句子,准确、通顺翻译汉语的能力。本次考试的翻译考点主要包含对并列句、定语从句、状语从句及固定词组等翻译的考查。

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