【阅读】四级阅读理解练习(一)
发布于 5年前 作者 来自外太空的鱼 1393 次浏览 来自 四级

A llelomimetic behavior may be defined as behavior in which two or more individual animals do the same thing, with some degree of mutual simulation and coordination. It can only involve in species with sense organs that are well enough developed so that continuous sensory contact can be maintained. It is found primarily in vertebrates(脊椎动物), in those species that are diurnal, and usually in those that spend much of their lives in the air, in open water or on open plains. In birds, allelomimetic behavior is the rule rather than the exception, though it may occasionally be limited to particular seasons of the year as it is in the redwing blackbird. Its principal function is that of providing safety from predators(掠食者), partly because the flock can rely on many pairs of eyes to watch for enemies, and partly because if one bird reacts to danger, the whole flock is warned. Among mammals, allelomimetic behavior is very rare in rodents(啮齿动物), which almost never move in flocks or herds. Even when they are artificially crowded together, they do not conform in their movements. On the other hand, such behavior is a major system among large hoofed mammals,such as sheep. In the pack hunting carnivores(食肉类飞禽), allelomimetic behavior has another function of cooperative hunting for large prey(被捕食者) animals,such as moose. Wolves also defend their dens as a group against larger predators, such as bears. Finally, allelomimetic behavior is highly developed among most primate groups, where it has the principal function of providing warning against predators,as though combined defensive behavior is also seen in troops of baboons(狒狒).

1.The main topic of the passage is the ____. A) value of allelomimetic behavior in vertebrate and invertebrate species B) definition and distribution of allelomimetic behavior C) relationship of allelomimetic behavior to the survival of the fittest D) personality factors that determine when an individual animal will show allelomimetic behavior

2.Which of the following places is the most likely setting for allelomimetic behavior? A) A lake. B) A cave. C) An underground tunnel. D) A thick forest.

3.The author implies that allelomimetic behavior occurs most often among animals that ____. A) prey on other animals
B) are less intelligent than their enemies C) move in groups D) have one sense organ that dominates perception

4.Which of the following is the most clear example of allelomimetic? A) Bears hunting for carnivores. B) Cattle fleeing from a fire. C) Horses running at a racetrack. D) Dogs working with police officers.

5.According to the passage the primary function of allelomimetic behavior in bird is to ____. A) defend nests against predators B) look at each other C) locate prey D) warn against predators

6.According to the passage, what happens to the behavior of rodents when they are artificially crowded together? A) Their allelomimetic behavior increases. B) Continuous cooperation between them is maintained. C) They become aggressive and attack each other. D) They show little allelomimetic behavior.

7.Which of the following groups of human beings would probably show the greatest amount of allelomimetic behavior? A) A group of students taking a test. B) Tennis players competing in a tournament. C) A patrol of soldiers scouting for the enemy. D) Drivers waiting for a traffic light to change.

答案与解析:

1.B。 短文的主题是什么?此题考查学生掌握文章主旨的能力。主题是什么?要回答这个问题首先要弄明白短文的主要内容,什么叫遗传模仿行为?定义是什么?情况怎样?有哪些例证?根据本题要求,B)遗传模仿行为的定义和分布,可在短文的第一段中找到。其它三项选择均应排除。

2.A。 下面列举的哪个地方最有可能成为遗传性模仿行为的环境?此题考查根据事实进行推断的能力。A)为正确答案。为什么?文章第一段的最后一句间接回答了这个问题:It is found primarily in vertebrates, in those species that are diurnal, and usually in those that spend much of their lives in the air, in open water or on open plains.(遗传模仿行为主要表现于脊椎动物以及那些白昼活动的动物,那些常常把一生大部时间都花在辽阔的天空、宽阔的水域或开阔的平原上的动物。)

3.C。 作者暗示遗传性模仿行为大多发生在……的动物身上。此题考查领会作者意图的能力。 解答此题须先找到有关事实,然后认真领会方可找到答案。作者暗示遗传模仿行为大多发生在群体活动的动物身上。在文章第三段最后一句话可以找到此答 案: On the other hand, such behavior is a major system among largehoofed mammals,such as sheep.(另一方面,这种行为在长蹄的大型哺乳动物如羊群等身上最为普遍。)羊群以群体活动为主,这种行为比其它哺乳动物更普遍,因此C为正确答案。A)掠食其它动物;B)不如自己的敌人聪明;D)有一个支配视力的感官。A)、B)和D)三项均不合题意。文中提到过猛禽在猎取prey animals(被掠食者)时也有这种allelomimetic behavior的功能,但发生在它们身上的可能性远没有发生在被掠食动物身上的可能性大。

4.B。 下面各情况中,哪一种清楚地说明是一个遗传模仿的例子? 此题考查根据内容进行推测的能力。在所给四个选择中 B)能够说明问题,因为牲畜受到大火的威胁时,就产生一种自我保护本能,采取保护自己的行动,逃离火源,所以B)为正确答案。A)掠食肉类动物的熊,不合题意。熊是不是掠食食肉动物的动物,我们暂且不管它,但有一点是肯定的:熊不是allelomimetic之类的动物。C)在跑道上赛跑的马。马是驯服的动物,也没有allelomimetic功能。D)和警察一起工作的狗。狗是人类忠实朋友,和警察的合作非常密切,更不会有这种功能。

5.D。 根据短文,鸟类遗传模仿行为的主要功能是…… 此题考查辨认某些事实的能力。 根据短文,鸟类遗传模仿行为的主要功能是警惕掠食者。如果选 A)保护鸟巢不受掠食者侵扰。主次颠倒,不合题意。主要功能是保护鸟类本身,而不是鸟巢。如果选 B)相互对视。allelomimelic behavior更没有这种功能,离题太远。如果选C)放置被捕食的动物。文不对题,不可取。

6.D。 根据短文,如果人为地把啮齿类动物聚集在一起,它们会产生什么样的行为 ? 此题考查认识文章某些细节的能力。此答案可在文章的第三段中找到。啮齿动物的遗传模仿行为很少见,如果人为地把它们聚在一起,它们的行动也不会保持一致。这说明,啮齿动物没有这种功能,所以 D)为正确答案。A)它们的这种行为增加,显然和题意不符。B)它们之间继续保持合作状态。事实上是:…they do not conform in their movement(行动不能保持一致)。C)它们变得好斗,并且相互攻击。这种情况是捏造的,不存在的。

7.C。 下面几种人中哪一种有可能表现出最大的遗传模仿行为 ? 此题考查根据内容进行合理推测的能力。有些动物包括人类在受到干扰或攻击时有一种自我保护意识和遗传模仿行 为。根据文章内容,可以推断遗传模仿行为在动物中常用作自我保护。这样,我们就可进一 步推测在人类中也类似。现在分析四个选项。A项参加考试的学生,B项参加比赛的运动员,C项侦察敌人的侦察兵,D项等待交通指示灯变换的司机。可看出,侦察兵在执行任务时,容易受到敌人的攻击,自我保护意识强,因而也最可能具有遗传模仿行为,所以C项最佳。


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