【语法】初中英语知识点大全:宾语从句
发布于 5年前 作者 来自外太空的鱼 1430 次浏览 来自 中考

宾语从句的引导词

1.由that 引导的陈述句性的宾语从句,在很多动词如say, think, wish , hope, see, believe, agree, expect, hear , feel等动词后。连词that只起连接作用,在从句中不做句子的成分,也无词汇意义,在口语中常被省略,但在大多数情况下还是以不省为好,特别是在笔语中。

例:I told him that he was wrong.

1)在think,believe, suppose, expect等动词引起的宾语从句中,有时谓语尽管是否定意义,却不用否定形式,而将think 等动词变为否定形式。

例:I don’t think you are right. (我认为你做的不对)

2)在许多带有复合宾语的句子中,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子的后面,而用it做形式宾语。

例:We think it wrong that he told a lie to everyone (我认为他向每一个人撒谎是错误的)

2.由连词if、 whether 引导的表示“是否…”的宾语从句。Whether,if 在从句中不做句子的成分,一般情况下,whether和if 可以替换。

例:I don’t know if/whether he will come tomorrow.

The teacher asked if/whether we had finished the experiment.

1)在介词后面的宾语从句中不用if引导

例:Everything depends on whether we have enough money。

2)宾语从句中有or not时不用if引导.

例:I don’t know whether the movie star will come or not.

3)和不定式连用作宾语时不用if引导.

例:Whether to go there or not hasn’t been decided.

3.由wh-引导的宾语从句。连接代词who,whom,whose, what, which,和连接副词when, where, why, how 等连接的宾语从句,它们在句中即有连接从句的作用,又在句中充当句子的成分。

例:Do you know which film they are talking about (which做定语)

I don’t know where he lives. (where 做地点状语)

分辨if和when引导词

if和when既能引导时间状语从句,又能引导宾语从句。因此,遇到它们就要认真分析一下,它们究竟属于“两副面孔”的哪一副。如:

If it rains tomorrow,I won’t come.(时间状语从句)

I don’t know if it will rain tomorrow. (宾语从句)

从句中人称与标点的变化

1.从句的主语如果是第一人称,变为宾语从句则与主句的主语一致;如果是第二人称,则与主句的宾语一致;如果是第三人称,不用变化。如:

“May I use your knife?”He asked me. →He asked me if he might use my knife.

“Do you know her telephone number?”He asked me. →He asked me if I know her telephone number.

2.宾语从句的标点均由主句决定。主句是陈述句,用句号;主句是疑问句,用问号。如:

Who will give us a talk?I don’t know. →I don’t know who will give us a talk.

Do you know?Where does he live?→Do you know where he lives?

宾语从句的简化

1.当主句谓语动词是find,see,watch,hear等感官动词时,从句常简化为“宾语+宾补”结构,宾补为不带to的不定式或V-ing形式。如:

She found that the wallet lay/was lying on the ground. →She found the wallet lie/lying on the ground.

2.当主句谓语动词是hope,wish,decide,forget,plan,agree等,且主句主语与从句主语相同时,从句可简化为不定式结构。如:

She agreed that she could help me with my maths. →She agreed to help me with my maths.

3.在连接代词/副词引导的宾语从句中,当从句主语与主句主语或间接宾语一致时,宾语从句可简化为“连接代词/副词+不定式”结构。如:

Can you tell me how I can get to the station?→Can you tell me how to get to the station?


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