【作文】常考知识点总结:书面表达
发布于 5年前 作者 来自外太空的鱼 1470 次浏览 来自 高考

高考英语常考知识点总结:书面表达

1.句式要有变化:(1)复合句、并列句 (2)倒装句   1) 虚拟语气中if省略 2)only+状语置于句首   3)否定词置于句首 4)地点副词置于句首   (3)强调句型   It is ……that (who)…   (4)非谓语动词。   (5)虚拟语气   (6)固定句型结构   too…to… so…that… such a…that… not only…but also… neither…nor… such as… not …until… so that… either…or…   (7)直接引语与间接引语   多种时态,动名词、不定式,并列结构 2.要使用高等级词汇及短语   (1)使用高等级词汇 (2)使用短语 (3)使用谚语 (4)使用表强调的词,如alone, just, single, only, not…at all; on the earth; the very; on earth等   (5)使用修辞手法:明喻, 暗喻,夸张,头韵,拟人等   as busy as a bee; as proud as a peacock; as blind as a bat. as cool as a cucumber 3.使用连接词,过渡自然,连贯通顺,一气呵成   (1) 用于按空间展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有:   above before me here on the left   across below in the distance on the right   beyond nearby opposite to over   also further next to on top of   up down close to beneath   under around near to along   (2) 用于按时间顺序展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有   soon, then, suddenly, at the same time, next, early,   this morning /year, now, after, at present, later, afterwards finally, at last, all of a sudden , at noon , in the morning/afternoon/evening   (3) 用于按分析法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有   first, second, etc. now for this purpose   but as a result furthermore   finally at last moreover   also therefore likewise   another for example next   yet for instance on the contrary   once in addition in summary   such in this case on the other hand   then otherwise in conclusion   thus   (4) 用于按比较法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有   another moreover in addition (to)   equally important too, also at the same time   besides then in the same way   in fact like, similarly   (5) 用于按对比法展开的段落之中的连接词和过渡词有   on the contrary different from on the other hand in contrast to despite   in spite of, yet, but ,whereas, unlike nevertheless not only…butalso here…there years)one ago…today the former…the latter then…now some…others one…the other once…now   on (the one hand…on the other hand(一方面…另一方面)   (6)逻辑关系   递进: then(然后), besides(还有), furthermore(而且), moreover(此外)   转折: however(然而), but(但是), on the country(相反), after all(毕竟)   总结: finally(最后), at last(最后), in brief(总之),   in conclusion(最后)。强调: indeed(确实), certainly(一定), surely(确定), above all(尤其)。对比: in the same way(同样地), just as(正如), on the one hand…on the other hand 4.写作中使用率最高覆盖面最广的基本句式   以下是短文写作中使用率最高、覆盖面最广的基本句式,每组句式的功能相同或相似,考生可根据自己的情况选择其中的1-2个,做到能够熟练正确地仿写或套用。   (1)表示原因 1)There are three reasons for this. 2)The reasons for this are as follows. 3)The reason for this is obvious. 4)The reason for this is not far to seek. 5)The reason for this is that… 6)We have good reason to believe that…   例如:There are three reasons for the changes that have taken place in our life.Firstly,people’s living standard has been greatly improved.Secondly,most people are well paid, and they can afford what they need or like.Last but not least,more and more people prefer to enjoy modern life. 注:如考生写第一个句子没有把握,可将其改写成两个句子。如:Great changes have taken place in our life. There are three reasons for this.这样写可以避免套用中的表达失误。   (2)表示好处 1)It has the following advantages. 2)It does us a lot of good. 3)It benefits us quite a lot. 4)It is beneficial to us. 5)It is of great benefit to us.   例如: Books are like friends.They can help us know the world better,and they can open our minds and widen our horizons.Therefore,reading extensively is of great benefit to us.   (3)表示坏处 1)It has more disadvantages than advantages. 2)It does us much harm. 3)It is harmful to us.   例如: However,everything divides into two.Television can also be harmful to us.It can do harm to our health and make us lazy if we spend too much time watching television.   (4)表示重要、必要、困难、方便、可能 1)It is important(necessary,difficult,convenient, possible)for sb.to do sth. 2)We think it necessary to do sth. 3)It plays an important role in our life.   例如: Computers are now being used everywhere,whether in the government,in schools or in business.Soon, computers will be found in every home,too.We have good reason to say that computers are playing an increasingly important role in our life and we have stepped into the Computer Age.   (5)表示措施 1)We should take some effective measures. 2)We should try our best to overcome(conquer)the difficulties. 3)We should do our utmost in doing sth. 4)We should solve the problems that we are confronted(faced)with.   例如: The housing problem that we are confronted with is becoming more and more serious.Therefore,we must take some effective measures to solve it.   (6)表示变化 1)Some changes have taken place in the past five years. 2)A great change will certainly be produced in the world’s communications. 3)The computer has brought about many changes in education. 例如: Some changes have taken place in people’s diet in the past five years.The major reasons for these changes are not far to seek.Nowadays,more and more people are switching from grain to meat for protein,and from fruit and vegetable to milk for vitamins.   (7)表示事实、现状 1)We cannot ignore the fact that… 2)No one can deny the fact that… 3)There is no denying the fact that… 4)This is a phenomenon that many people are interested in. 5)However,that’s not the case.   例如: We cannot ignore the fact that industrialization brings with it the problems of pollution.To solve these problems, we can start by educating the public about the hazards of pollution.The government on its part should also design stricter laws to promote a cleaner environment.   (8)表示比较 1)Compared with A,B… 2)I prefer to read rather than watch TV. 3)There is a striking contrast between them.   例如:Compared with cars,bicycles have several advantages besides being affordable.Firstly,they do not consume natural resources of petroleum.Secondly,they do not cause the pollution problem.Last but not least,they contribute to people’s health by giving them due physical exercise.   (9)表示数量 1)It has increased(decreased)from…to… 2)The population in this city has now increased (decreased)to 800,000. 3)The output of July in this factory increased by 15% compared with that of January.   例如: With the improvement of the living standard,the proportion of people’s income spent on food has decreased while that spent on education has increased.   再如: From the graph listed above,it can be seen that student use of computers has increased from an average of less than two hours per week in 1990 to 20 hours in 2000.   (10)表示看法 1)People have(take,adopt,assume)different attitudes towards sth. 2)People have different opinions on this problem. 3)People take different views of(on)the question. 4)Some people believe that…Others argue that…   例如: People have different attitudes towards failure.Some believe that failure leads to success. Every failure they experience translates into a greater chance of success at their renewed endeavor.However, others are easily discouraged by failures and put themselves into the category of losers.   再如: Do “lucky numbers really bring good luck?Different people have different views on it. 注:一个段落有时很适宜以问句开始,考生应掌握这一写作方法。   (11)表示结论 1)In short,it can be said that … 2)It may be briefly summed up as follows. 3)From what has been mentioned above,we can come to the conclusion that …   例如: From what has been mentioned above,we can come to the conclusion that examination is necessary,however, its method should be improved.注:例句1可用于任何一个段落的结论句;例句3则多用文章结论段的第一句。   (12)套语 1)It’s well known to us that … 2)As is known to us,… 3)This is a topic that is being widely talked about. 4)From the graph(table,chart)listed above,it can be seen that … 5)As a proverb says,“Where there is a will,there is a way.   例如: As is well known to us,it is important for the students to know the world outside campus. The reason for this is obvious.Nowadays,the society is changing and developing rapidly,and the campus is no longer an ‘ivory tower’. As college students,we must get in touch with the world outside the campus.Only in this way can we adapt ourselves to the society quickly after we graduate.   再如: Does it pay to be honest?This is a topic that is being widely talked about and different people have different opinions on it.


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