【语法集结】如何正确运用虚拟语气
发布于 6年前 作者 来自外太空的鱼 1019 次浏览 来自 中考

一、虚拟语气的作用 虚拟语气通常被用来表示说话的主体所说的话并不是事实,而是一种大胆的假设、美好的愿望、怀疑或推测。    二、何时用虚拟语气 1.虚拟语气用于条件状语从句

(1)表示与现在事实相反的假设,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时(be动词用were),而主句中的谓语动词用“would/should/could/might+动词原形”。 【例】If I were you, I would buy that house. If he had time, he should go with you.    (2)表示与过去的事实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用过去完成时,主句中的谓语动词则用“would/should/might/could+have+过去分词”。 【例】If he had taken my advice, he would have succeeded in passing the examination.    (3)表示与将来事实相反,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时或“should/were to+动词原形”,而主句中的谓语动词则用“would/should/could/might+动词原形”。 【例】If it were to rain tomorrow, the football match would be put off.    (4)当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作相应调整。 【例】If they had worked hard, they would be very tired now.(从句说的是过去,主句指的是现在)

2.虚拟语气用于名词性从句 (1)虚拟语气在宾语从句中的运用。 ①“wish+宾语从句”表示不能实现的愿望,译为“要是……就好了”等。表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用一般过去时;表示将来不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用“would/could+动词原形”;表示过去不能实现的愿望,从句中的谓语动词用“had+过去分词”或“could/should+have+过去分词”。 【例】I wish it were spring all the year round. I wish I had known the answer. I wish I could fly like a bird.    ②在表示建议、要求、命令等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可以省略。常见的动词有:suggest,advise,propose,demand,require,insist,request,command,order等。 【例】She suggested we (should) leave here at once. The doctor ordered she should be operated on.    (2)虚拟语气在同位语从句和表语从句中的运用。 表示建议、要求、命令等的名词,如advice,idea,order,demand,plan,proposal,suggestion,request等,其后的表语从句和同位语从句中谓语动词用“(should+)动词原形”,should可以省略。 【例】His suggestion that we (should) go to Shanghai is wonderful. My idea is that they (should) pay 100 dollars.    (3)虚拟语气在主语从句中的运用。 在主语从句中,谓语动词的虚拟语气用“(should+)动词原形”的结构,表示惊奇、不相信、理应如此等。 It is necessary (important,natural,strange,etc.)that we (should) clean the room every day. It was a pity (a shame,no wonder,etc.)that you (should) be so careless. It will be desired (suggested,decided,ordered,requested,proposed,etc.)that she (should) finish her homework this afternoon. 注意:这种从句表示的是事实。如果人对这种事实表现出惊奇的情感,就可用虚拟语气;反之,如果不表示惊奇等情感,that从句也可用陈述句语气。 【例】It is a pity that you can’t swim.    3.虚拟语气在其他场合的运用 (1)虚拟语气在as if/as though,even if/even though等引导的表语从句或状语从句中,如果从句表示的动作发生在过去,用过去完成时;指现在状况,则用一般过去时;指将来状况则用过去将来时。 【例】He did it as if he were an expert. Even if she were here, she could not solve the problem.    (2)虚拟语气用于定语从句中。 这种从句常用于句型“It is (high)time (that).…”中,定语从句的谓语动词用一般过去时(be用were)或“should+动词原形”,意思是“(现在)该……”。 【例】It’s time that I picked up my daughter. It’s high time we were going.

(3)虚拟语气用在if only引导的感叹句中。 【例】If only I were a pilot. If only I had taken his advice.


更多精彩学习资料,请关注知米英语资讯平台 微信公众平台:蓝脑教育-知米英语 (微信号:ZhimiEnglish) 新浪微博:知米英语 百度贴吧: 知米背单词 Foh0YW7bBlRA9858xtFt6N6zcKF8.jpg (文章来源:网络)

回到顶部