【阅读】考研英语阅读例证题方法讲解
发布于 6年前 作者 dingdong 917 次浏览 来自 考研

考研英语阅读是整体试卷分数最重的部分,历年都是兵家必争之地,也是让很多考生很“忧愁”的题型之一。接下来小编将为考生讲解阅读的一种题型——例证题题,希望对考生的暑期英语复习有所帮助。

一、判断题型

通过对考研英语阅读文章题干的观察分类例证题题干特点如下,当题干中出现example,demonstrate,illustrate,case,story等词即可判断该题干为例证题,见历年真题题干如下:

  1. Wilt Chamberlain is cited as an example to____. (2008 text3)
  2. George Washington’s dental surgery in mentioned to____. (2008 text 4)
  3. The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to____. (2007 text 1)
  4. The statement “It never rains but it pours” is used to introduce____. (2007 text 4)

二、方法

通过对历年真题的分析,例证题的考察主要考察的是论点论据的区分,即找出例子论证的论点。例证题可细分为两种类型:例子在文首、例子在文中。例子在文首时,多为了引出文章主题,主题通常紧随例子后面;例子在文中时,多为刚刚陈述一个观点,接着举例论证的情况,所以观点多数情况紧随例子前面。 例子在文首见历年真题题干如下: 1.The extinction of large prehistoric animals is noted to suggest that____. (2006 Text 3) [A] large animal were vulnerable to the changing environment [B] small species survived as large animals disappeared [C] large sea animals may face the same threat today [D] slow-growing fish outlive fast-growing ones 例子出现在文章首段,用过去式陈述过去发生在大型肉食动物身上的事情,一段末通过now这个时间指示副词和文章开头的arrived之间的对比提出文章主题,Now something similar could be happening in the oceans。正确答案为最后首段末句的同义替换,C。

  1. The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to____. (2007 text 1) [A] stress the importance of professional training. [B] spotlight the soccer superstars at the World Cup. [C] introduce the topic of what makes expert performance. [D] explain why some soccer teams play better than others. 一段通过一个现象的叙述,引出二段首的观点,此篇文章,主旨句特点比较明显,为二段首的问句,问题的答案即为主旨,what might account for this strange phenomenon?首段中的问句及二段首的问句就是文章的主旨,另见2001text4,2002text3。2005年第二篇及2007年第二篇首段连续出现多个并列问句的情况不是文章主旨。

三、错误选项特点

通过对真题的分析,例证题错误选项的特征多为就事论事,混淆论点论据。见真题如下:

  1. The extinction of large prehistoric animals is noted to suggest that_____. (2006 Text 3) [A] large animal were vulnerable to the changing environment(文中一段例子中的细节,不可概括主题) [B] small species survived as large animals disappeared(文中一段例子中的细节,不可概括主题) [C] large sea animals may face the same threat today [D] slow-growing fish outlive fast-growing ones(与文中一段三句相矛盾,属于一段例子中的细节上的反向干扰。) 综合分析其它三个干扰选项特征其实一句话概括,即题干问为什么举例,而干扰选项在说这个例子本身——就事论事,混淆论点论据。

  2. The birthday phenomenon found among soccer players is mentioned to____. (2007 text 1) [A] stress the importance of professional training. (球员出生现象不能够直接强调职业训练的重要性,此处通过球员出生的例子在没有论证的情况下,还不能得出结论,即天才是后天造就的,文章的论证是下面的逻辑顺序:球员出生现象的引子——原因的猜测:某些星相学玄学原因?——接着通过埃里克森的实验得出结论:天才是后天造就。该选项跳跃性太强,出现了逻辑断层。) [B] spotlight the soccer superstars at the World Cup. (例证为了引出主题:二段首,卓越的原因,而不是讨论球员本身,选项B非作者意图。) [C] introduce the topic of what makes expert performance. [D] explain why some soccer teams play better than others. (文章中说的是球员,不是球队,属于一段例子中的细节上的偷换概念。) 通过对干扰选项的观察,B、D两个干扰项的特点都是就事论事,讨论例子本身,非作者意图,没有分清论点论据。

文章来源:跨考教育

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